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Chapter 2: The English Arrive in America . Are there any core values that most Americans share? Do you think that the colonists helped shape these values?. The Impact of the early colonial period: Religious conflicts in Europe influenced the colonists’ ideas of religious tolerance.

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Are there any core values that most Americans share?

Do you think that the colonists helped shape these values?

  • The Impact of the early colonial period:
  • Religious conflicts in Europe influenced the colonists’ ideas of religious tolerance.
  • The northern United States is still more urban than much of the South.
  • The United States remains a nation made up of immigrants from many countries.
section 1 england s first colonies
Section 1: England’s First Colonies


Major changes in England caused the English to establish colonies on the Eastern Coast of North America.

Types of changes:




england takes interest in america
England Takes Interest in America
  • In 1497, John Cabot had sailed to present day Nova Scotia, searching for a sea route through North America to China. (Northwest Passage)

-For next 80 years, English made no effort to colonize.

-Little money

-No wealth found

-Spanish had already claimed it.

-Major religious, economic and political changes would take place

religious changes and the interest in america
Religious Changes and the Interest in America
  • Turning Point: The Reformation
    • Martin Luther’s attack against the Catholic Church
      • Ninety-Five Theses-1517
      • Marked beginning of the Protestant Reformation
      • Led to break within the Catholic Church and the creation of the Protestant Church
    • Reformation in England
      • 1527: King Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church
      • Pope refused to grant annulment between Henry and his wife Catherine.
      • Henry declared himself the head of the Church of England and arranged his own divorce.
      • The new Anglican Church was Protestant even though its organization and rituals were mostly Catholic.
    • Puritans
      • wanted to purify the Anglican church of remaining Catholic elements
      • Hated that monarchs and bishops controlled the church
      • Believed every congregation should elect its own ministers
      • When James I became king in 1603, he refused to tolerate Puritan ideas and many became interested in leaving England.
economic changes and the interest in america
Economic Changes and the Interest in America
  • Revolution in trade and agriculture was changing English society
    • Traditionally, nobles owned large estates and rented land to tenant farmers.
    • Enclosure Movement
      • Nobles began fencing off their land to turn convert their estates into sheep farms-thousands of tenant farmers were evicted.
      • Continued economic problems encouraged many to come to America.
  • Joint-Stock companies-pooled money to support big projects
      • -They could afford to trade with and colonize other parts of the world.
  • Mercantilism: Emphasized establishing a colonies for a favorable balance of trade for the mother country. (Desire for gold, silver, and other resources)
england returns to america
England Returns to America
  • The quest for new markets convinced English merchants to resume the search for a northern water route to Asia.
  • Growing Rivalry with Spain
      • England became the leading Protestant power; Spain the leading Catholic power.
      • Queen Elizabeth aided the Protestant Dutch against the Spanish.
        • She needed a base of operations to allow attacks on Spanish ships-she sought them in America.
      • After two unsuccessful attempts to create a colony, Walter Raleigh sent two ships to scout the coastline.
        • Found an island along the banks of modern North Carolina.
        • Native Americans called it Roanoke.
        • Queen Elizabeth knighted Raleigh and he named the land Virginia, in honor of her. WHY??
      • Raleigh sent settlers to Roanoke Island twice.
        • The first group returned to England.
        • The second group disappeared.
        • The colony vanished after war between England and Spain kept supplies from reaching them. (“The Lost Colony”)
jamestown is founded
Jamestown is Founded
  • In 1606, King James I allowed English investors of the Virginia Company to place colonies in Virginia.
  • Three small ships and 144 men arrived in May 1607 at a settlement they named Jamestown.
    • Troubles
      • Poor location
        • Too close to sea
        • Swampy land and malaria-carrying mosquitoes.
      • Most were townspeople who knew little
      • Upper class “gentlemen” refused to do manual labor
      • Jamestown’s governing council argued and couldn’t make decisions
      • Led to lawlessness, sickness and food shortages
      • 190 more arrived in 1608, by the end of the year only 53 were alive.
jamestown continued
Jamestown, continued...
  • Captain John Smith was Jamestown’s only strong leader.
  • In 1607, with winter approaching, he explored the region and began trading goods for food with Native American group called the Powhatan Confederacy, led by Chief Powhatan.
  • 400 new settlers came in August 1609 after the VA Company offered free land to anyone who worked the colony for seven years.
    • Newcomers caused a major food shortage.
    • John Smith returned to England due to a gunpowder burn
    • They stole food from natives, leading to them being attacked.

Jamestown, continued...

  • “Starving Time”-Winter of 1609 to 1610
    • They ate “dogs, rats, snakes, toadstools, and horsehides.” Some even resorted to cannibalism.
    • By the spring of 1610 only 60 were alive.
  • They decided to abandon Jamestown and go back to England
    • On the way they met three ships carrying supplies and 150 more settlers
    • They returned with the governor and his deputy.
    • A harsh code of law was put into place.
    • They were required to work six hours a day with the death penalty for crimes like rape, adultery, lying, swearing, and derision of the Bible.
tobacco saves jamestown
Tobacco Saves Jamestown
  • The production of tobacco had been controlled by the Spanish.
  • It ad become very popular in Europe in the early 1600s.
  • Colonist John Rolfe used tobacco seeds from Trinidad and developed a new method for curing it.
  • It sold for a good price and settlers soon began planting large quantities of it.
  • What is John Rolfe also famous for?
changes in politics and government luring settlers
Changes in Politics and Government /Luring Settlers
  • In 1618, new reforms were introduced by the Virginia Company to attract settlers:
    • Virginia was given the right to elect its own lawmaking body.
      • New government included a governor, 6 councillors, and 20 representatives.
      • Representatives were called burgesses.
      • The assembly was called the House of Burgesses.
    • Settlers who bought a share in the company or paid for their passage were given 50 acres and 50 more for each member over 15 and servants.
    • Marriage opportunities for single men
      • A bachelor could purchase a bride for 120 pounds of tobacco
    • Started bringing Africans as “Christian servants.”
virginia becomes a royal colony
Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
  • New policies triggered a wave of immigration
    • By 1622, 4500 settlers had arrived in Virginia.
    • Alarmed Native Americans who attacked Jamestown in March 1922 and killed nearly 350 settlers.
  • The Virginia Company was blamed for the attacks and the government revoked the company’s charter.
  • It became a royal colony run by governor appointed by the King.
maryland is founded
Maryland is Founded
  • Maryland was not founded by a joint-stock company like Virginia.
  • Founded by George Calvert, or Lord Baltimore.
    • He was Catholic and a friend of King James and his son Charles.
    • Wanted a colony where Catholics could practice religion freely.
    • 1632, King Charles granted him a large area of land.
  • It was the first proprietary colony (owned by an individual)
    • He could run it any way he wanted.
    • He died before settlers arrived
    • Ended up being mostly Protestant, but government officials and estate owners were Catholic.
  • Toleration Act of 1649 granted toleration to all Christians in the colony.
  • What did it mean to be Puritan?
  • How did the enclosure movement in England encourage interest in America?
  • How did John Smith help Jamestown survive?
  • What crop did John Rolfe establish in Jamestown?
  • What are the major differences in the founding of Virginia and Maryland?


  • This section explores the colonies founded in New England by English Puritans.
  • In the 1600s, English Puritans were fleeing religious persecution and economic difficulties.
  • They founded several colonies in New England


  • The Puritans were a group of Puritan Separatists, who wanted to separate from the Anglican Church.
  • They were influenced by John Calvin, who preached predestination.
  • James I had persecuted them and many had fled to Holland in 1608, then to America in 1617.
  • September 16, 1620, 102 passengers of the Mayflower set off for Virginia
    • They had a copy of John Smith’s “Map of New England”
    • Settled at “Plymouth”
    • William Bradford-leader of the colony
  • Built modest homes
  • Plague swept through leaving only 50 settlers.
    • Might not have survived without Squanto
    • Taught them about their new environment
    • Helped negotiate a peace treaty with Wampanoag people.
    • Celebrated in a three day festival.


  • John Winthrop and other Puritan leaders created the colony as a refuge for Puritans escaping the persecution from Charles I and economic recession that was plaguing England.
  • 1630, 11 ships and 900 settlers
  • “The Lord will make our name a praise and glory…We shall be like a City upon a Hill; the eyes of all people are upon us.” (John Winthrop)
  • Winthrop believed the government should support religion and laws required everyone to attend church.
  • It became a theocracy, where the government regulated moral behavior.
  • The government discouraged different religious beliefs.
  • Puritan intolerance led to the founding of other colonies in New England.


  • Roger Williams
    • Founded Providence when he was banished from Massachusetts Bay
    • Supported separation of church and state and individual religious freedom
  • Ann Hutchinson
    • Was banished from Boston
    • She was charged with heresy because she challenged the authority of ministers.
    • She and her followers founded the town of Portsmouth
  • Other towns were soon established and joined with Providence and Portsmouth to form Rhode Island.
  • In 1663, Parliament granted a charter to the colony that guaranteed religious freedom.


  • Government of Massachusetts allowed Reverend Thomas Hooker and his congregation to relocate to the Connecticut River Valley.
  • First colony to adopt a Constitution, and allowed all adult men to vote and serve in government.
  • Faced war with the Pequots in 1637.


  • Created by two men who were given a grant by the government north of Massachusetts and they divided the land.
  • Massachusetts challenged their claims, but the courts ruled in favor of the men.
  • N.H. became a royal colony in 1679, but Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until 1820.


  • Natives and settlers had good relations for 40 years after Pequot War.
  • Fur trade helped relations
  • Trade began to decline and natives felt English were destroying their way of life.
  • King Philip’s War erupted when Plymouth executed three natives for a murder.
  • Colonists won, driving away natives from New England.


Why did Pilgrims and Puritans migrate to America?

What is meant by a “City on a Hill?”

In what ways were the reasons for the founding of Massachusetts and Rhode Island different and similar?


Section 3: Southern and Middle Colonies

This section describes factors that led to the founding of seven Middle and Southern Colonies.


The English Civil War and the Colonies

  • The English Civil War began in 1642
    • Between supporters of King Charles I and supporters of Parliament.
    • Parliament was mostly Puritan
    • In 1649, Parliament won and put the King to death.
  • Oliver Cromwell seized power and became a dictator in England.
    • After Cromwell’s death, Parliament restored the monarchy under Charles II and began colonizing again for:
        • Natural resources
        • Markets for English goods

New York and New Jersey

  • New York
    • Became an English colony through conquest
    • It was originally New Netherland, belonging to the Dutch.
    • England had a rivalry in the fur trade with the Dutch.
    • King Charles II provided his brother, the Duke of York, a fleet and he seized and renamed it.
  • New Jersey
    • The Duke of York granted parts of New York to other English nobles and became New Jersey.

Pennsylvania and Delaware

  • Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn, a Quaker
  • King owed him a debt and granted him the land.
  • Quakers:
    • Believed religion was a personal experience
    • No need for ministers
    • Objected to political laws, like tax payment
    • Objected to war
    • Wanted fair treatment for natives
  • Penn wanted Pennsylvania to be a refuge for all those persecuted- A “Holy Experiment”
  • Government had an elected assembly and guaranteed religious freedom-very democratic for the time.
  • Attracted many people from Europe
  • Penn purchased land below Pennsylvania from the Duke of York to give settlers access to the sea-became Delaware.

Southern Colonies

  • Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.


  • Charles II awarded the Carolinas (Latin for Charles) to those who had helped during the restoration of the English monarchy.
  • It developed as two separate regions, settled by proprietors, not joint-stock companies.
  • Slavery was introduced almost immediately.

The Georgia Experiment

  • Began its history as a colony for English prisoners who could not pay their debts.
  • Gave them the chance for the poor to start over.
  • It also provided a strategic buffer to keep Spain from expanding north.
  • Named in honor of King George II.
  • Had strict rules
    • Banned rum, brandy, and slavery, which were eventually lifted.

By 1775, about 2.5 million people lived in England’s American colonies.

  • Its success would prove its undoing.
    • By permitting new types of worship and government, they had planted the seeds of rebellion.
    • Colonies had developed their own unique cultures
    • Typical English colonists came to the New World to improve their economic status or to seek greater political and religious independence.

This section explains the different economies developed by the Southern, New England, and Middle Colonies


Southern Society

  • Based mostly on agriculture
    • Tobacco-mostly in Virginia and Maryland
    • South’s first successful cash crop
  • Many in England became indentured servants
    • Made labor contracts with colonists, agreeing to work for four years and in return their passage, food, clothing was paid for until the contract expired.
    • About half of indentured servants died in VA and MA before earning their freedom.
    • Of those who became free, less than half acquired their own land.
  • In South Carolina, settlers turned to rice after sugarcane failed.
    • Imported enslaved Africans to cultivate it.
    • Became a major cash crop in South Carolina and Georgia

Disparities in Wealth

  • Wealthy plantation owners (planter elite)
    • enjoyed economic and political influence and had huge estates.
  • Majority of landowners were small farmers
    • practiced subsistence farming (raising enough for their families).
  • Landless tenant farmers
    • Many couldn’t afford the numerous costs
    • Worked land they rented from the planter elite.

Bacon’s Rebellion

  • 1676, violence erupted between army of Jamestown Governor William Berkeley and a militia led by Nathaniel Bacon.
    • Over land-many tenant farmers wanted to have their own land, but Berkeley wouldn’t expand the settlement for fear of provoking natives.
    • Also over taxexemptions planter elite were receiving.
  • After Bacon’s Rebellion, more enslaved Africans were used instead of indentured servants.
    • They would never need land
    • Less were willing to be indentured servants
    • England had a charter to engage in the slave trade
    • Slaves could be used as collateral to borrow money.

Slavery in the Colonies

  • Middle Passage-voyage from Africa to America
    • 8-10 million slaves reached America by 1870, imported by the British, Spanish, French and Dutch.
    • In Virginia they were at first treated like indentured servants because English law did not recognize ownership of humans.
    • Many believed it was acceptable if they were not Christians.
    • By 1660s, their status was lowered, regardless of religion.

Life in New England

  • Diverse economy
    • Not suitable to cash crops and large plantations
    • Farmers mostly practiced subsistence farming
    • Fishing brought most prosperity
    • Whaling (whale blubber used to make candles, lamp oil)
    • Thriving lumber industry
    • Shipbuilding

Life in New England, Continued

Life in small communities centered around town common



-meetinghouse, or church

-discussed issues at town meetings

-developed strong belief in the right to governthemselves


-valued religious devotion, hard work and obedience to rules.

-Watching neighbor’s behavior was considered a religious duty


Section 5: A Diverse Society

This section describes the growth of the economy, population, and spirit of individualism that arose in the colonies.



  • Mercantilists believed that to become wealthy and powerful, a country had to accumulate gold and silver.
  • They would do this by selling more goods.
  • More gold and silver would flow into the country than flowed out.
  • A country should be self-sufficient in raw materials, therefore they needed colonies where raw materials were available.
    • Benefit: Gave colonies a reliable market for their goods
    • Negative: Prevented colonies from selling certain goods to other nations.
      • Navigation Acts-required all goods shipped to and from colonies to be on English ships
      • Specific products could only be sold to England
      • Merchants bringing foreign goods had to first stop at England and pay taxes. Increased prices for colonists.
      • Encouraged colonial merchants to break laws.

Glorious Revolution of 1688

  • James II was losing support in England, and he had converted to Catholicism.
  • To prevent a male heir, the English parliament invited his daughter and her husband to claim the throne.
  • It was a bloodless change of power.
  • William and Mary took the throne and signed the English Bill of Rights
    • One provision said that monarchs could not impose taxes without parliament’s consent
    • Guaranteed freedom of speech, banned excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments.

John Locke’s Political Theories

  • The Glorious Revolution suggested that there were times when Revolutions were necessary
  • In 1690, John Locke published Two Treatises of Government
    • Argued that a monarch’s right to rule came from people
    • All people were born with natural rights to life, liberty and property
    • If government does not uphold rights, people can rebel against government.
  • Struck a chord with American colonists
    • Restated in Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence.

Population Quiz

  • There was huge population growth after 1700.
    • Married young and had numerous children. Large families were needed for farms.
    • Increased immigration into the middle colonies (especially Pennsylvania) by Germans, Scots-Irish, and Jews
    • Increased numbers of slaves added to the racial diversity.