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Unit 6 Seminar. Ambiguity and Faulty Reasoning. Ambiguity and Faulty Reasoning.

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unit 6 seminar

Unit 6 Seminar

Ambiguity and Faulty Reasoning

ambiguity and faulty reasoning
Ambiguity and Faulty Reasoning
  • The fallacies we will discuss tonight are largely able to be classified as fallacies of ambiguity. In other words, they occur when words are used with distinct meanings in the same argument, premises are repeated, etc.
begging the question
Begging the Question
  • Begging the question is committed whenever the arguer creates the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion by leaving out a key premise, by restating the conclusion as a premise, or by reasoning in a circle.
equivocation
Equivocation
  • Equivocation occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the fact that a word or phrase is used, either explicitly or implicitly, in two different senses within a single argument.
loaded language
Loaded Language
  • Loaded language occurs when a term or terms known to have negative or positive connotations are deliberately placed in an argument to evoke favor toward your conclusion.
false analogy
False Analogy
  • This fallacy occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on an analogy (or similarity) that is not strong enough to support the conclusion.
  • From discussion:
    • Both marijuana and alcohol can be dangerous. So, both should be illegal.
rationalization
Rationalization
  • A rationalization fallacy is an attempt to make it appear that reason is being used when in actuality excuses are being made.
slippery slope
Slippery Slope
  • The slippery slope fallacy occurs when the conclusion of an argument rests on an alleged chain reaction, and there is not sufficient reason to think that the chain reaction will actually occur.
reductio ad absurdum
Reductio ad absurdum
  • The reductio occurs when we take an opponents view and show that if followed to its logical conclusion is absurd or leads to absurd consequences.
  • Or, you can try to prove your point by assuming the opposite of your point and showing that it leads to absurdity: to a contradictory or silly result.
slide11

“Attempts to outlaw pornography threaten basic civil rights and should be abandoned. If it is outlawed then censorship or newspapers is only a short step away.”

    • A. Begging the Question
    • B. Slippery Slope
    • C. Reductio
    • D. False Cause
slide12

“The amount of television that children view daily has increased over the last 25 years. During this time standardized test scores for children have dropped. Obviously, television is making our kids intellectually lazy.”

    • A. Hasty Generalization
    • B. Appeal to ignorance
    • C. False Cause
    • D. Card Stacking
    • E. No Fallacy
slide13

“When a car breaks down so often that repairs become pointless, the car is thrown in the junk. Similarly, when a person becomes old and diseased, he or she should be mercifully put to death.”

    • A. False cause
    • B. Rationalization
    • C. Ad baculum
    • D. Weak analogy
slide14

“Mike’s car is light blue, has leather upholstery, and gets great gas mileage. Bill’s car also is light blue and has leather upholstery. Therefore, it must get great gas mileage.”

    • A. False analogy
    • B. False Cause
    • C. Strawman
    • D. Circular Reasoning
slide15

“Your honor it is true that I abused my children, but I was abused myself. It is understandable that I abused them.”

    • A. Ad baculum
    • B. Rationalization
    • C. Weak analogy
    • D. False Cause
slide16

“Of course you should vote for Strickland! Everyone here in the department is voting for Strickland.”

    • A. False Cause
    • B. Weak analogy
    • C. Ad populum
    • D. Loaded Language
    • E. No fallacy
slide17

“Have you stopped drinking excessively yet?”

    • A. Ad hominem
    • B. False Cause
    • C. Weak analogy
    • D. Loaded Language
slide18

“Islamic fundamentalists stormed cites in India, killing and holding people hostage. The message is clear: All Muslims are religious fanatics prone to violence.”

    • A. Card Stacking
    • B. Hasty Generalization
    • C. Ad Ignorantium
    • D. Ad Nauseum
    • E. No Fallacy
slide19

“The Book of Mormon is true because it was written by Joseph Smith. Smith wrote the truth because he was divinely inspired. We know he was divinely inspired because the Book of Mormon says so.”

    • A. Reductio
    • B. False Analogy
    • C. Begging the Question
    • D. False Cause
slide20

“California condors are rapidly disappearing. This bird is a California condor. Therefore, this bird should disappear any minute now.”

    • A. Equivocation
    • B. Begging the Question
    • C. False Cause
    • D. No fallacy
slide21

“Evangelical make up a significant voting bloc. However, this shouldn’t be tolerated. Religious extremists have no place voting in a deliberative democracy.”

    • A. Loaded Language
    • B. Weak analogy
    • C. False cause
    • D. Ad hominem
slide22

“If we extend the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement, the governments of Central and South America will demand that we buy their goods and hire their nationals in our factories. Soon, American industry will be unable to compete. Then our national sovereignty will erode as we become progressively poorer and other countries in our hemisphere become progressively richer.”

    • A. Strawman
    • B. Rationalization
    • C. Weak analogy
    • D. Slippery Slope
slide23

“Domestic terrorism is on the rise. Apparently those right-wing radio talk shows are starting to bear fruit.”

    • A. Stawman
    • B. Weak Analogy
    • C. Begging the Question
    • D. Equivocation