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Lexical databases as resources for linguistic creativity: Focus on metaphor. Birte Lönneker University of Hamburg, Germany Research Center of the Slovenian Academy, Ljubljana. Introduction. Metaphor is a form of linguistic creativity: the more novel, the more creative

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lexical databases as resources for linguistic creativity focus on metaphor

Lexical databases as resources for linguistic creativity: Focus on metaphor

Birte Lönneker

University of Hamburg, Germany

Research Center of the

Slovenian Academy, Ljubljana

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

introduction
Introduction
  • Metaphor is a form of linguistic creativity: the more novel, the more creative
  • There are several types of novel metaphors
  • Novel metaphors are rare
  • By studying conventionalized metaphors and their novel extensions, we can learn more about creative metaphors

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

a conceptual metaphor
A conceptual metaphor

CHANGE IS MOTION

  • Conventional lexical metaphors illustrate the metaphorical mapping:
    • The Financial Times 30-share index tumbled34.9 to [...].
    • [...] profit margins fellto 3.9% from 5.8% a year earlier, as general expenses soarednearly sevenfold.
    • [...], service-industry employment roseabout 200,000, against a 2.7 million dropin goods-producing jobs.

Change abstract size

Change physical location

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

systems for t e x t understanding and generation need knowledge resources

Systems for textunderstanding and generation need knowledge resources

“general expenses soared”

to soar1 [SUBJ: airplane, flying object]

to soar2 [SUBJ: abstract entity (with location on abstract scale)]

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

lexical databases as resources
Lexical databases as resources

Questions:

  • To which extent do current lexical databases provide information on conventional metaphor?

(... which is creatively extensible)

  • Which representation structures
    • do exist?
    • are still needed?

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

examples of lexical databases
Examples of lexical databases
  • Princeton WordNet: English, ongoing
    • WN 2.0: 115,000 concepts
    • free!
  • EuroWordNet: eight European languages
    • ca. 15,000 concepts for German
    • ca. 23,000 concepts for French
    • available from ELRA/ELDA

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

wordnet structuring principles
Synsetsare sets of synonyms or near-synonyms referring to the same concept, e.g.

{tumble, topple}

(the concept of ‘fallingdown, as if collapsing’)

Relationscharacterize the way in which two synsets are connected,e.g.

{tumble, topple}

HAS_HYPERONYM {descend, fall, go down, come down}

WordNet structuring principles

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

antonymy
MOTION

CHANGE

Lexical Metaphors in WordNet 2.0

ANTONYMY

{travel, go, move, locomote}

{change magnitude}

{descend, fall, go down,

come down}

{decrease, diminish,

lessen, fall}

ANTONYMY

{decline, go

down, wane}

{tumble, topple}

{drop}

{drop}

{tumble}

{rise, lift, arise, move up,

go up, come up, uprise}

{increase}

{wax, mount,

climb, rise}

{soar, soar up,

soar upwards,

surge, zoom}

[...]

{soar}

first consequences for knowledge based systems
First consequences for knowledge-based systems
  • Knowledge Acquisition:
    • Lexical databases as resource for representing the structure of the source and target domain
  • Evaluation:
    • Reference to a common general lexical resource can facilitate the comparison of different systems that deal with metaphor.

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

the hamburg metaphor database
The Hamburg Metaphor Database
  • Currently, wordnets do not directly relate conceptual domains that underly metaphoricity.
  • The mapping is reflected only indirectly by parallel polysemy (if at all).
  • Aim of the Hamburg Metaphor Database:

Study how information on metaphors could better be represented in Wordnets

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

hamburg metaphor database resources
Hamburg Metaphor Database Resources
  • Corpora: Collected for Master Theses
  • Languages: German and French
  • Lexical database:

EuroWordNet in German and French

  • Domain names: Free list of conceptual domains and mappings

(Lakoff et al. 1991)

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

hamburg metaphor database methodology
Hamburg Metaphor Database Methodology
  • Identify metaphorically used word in corpus texts
  • Enter corpus context (sentence, phrase)
  • Annotate the lexical metaphor with
    • synset information from EuroWordNet
    • domain information from metaphor list
    • (additional) domain information in German

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

hamburg metaphor database example
Hamburg Metaphor DatabaseExample

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

case study
Case Study
  • Input: 22 results from the Hamburg Metaphor Database for the source domain BUILDING (BAUWERK)
    • Target domains: CREATING (ACTION), ORGANIZATION, ...
    • Lexical metaphors: e.g. architect, construction, debris, foundation, pillar

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

representation of the building source domain in eurowordnet
destroy

create

creator

Representation of the BUILDING Source Domain in EuroWordNet

{zerstören:1}

{erschaffen:1 erzeugen:2

machen:5 schaffen:3}

{créateur:1}

INVOL-

VED_

AGENT

{zertrümmern:N

in Trümmer

legen:N}

create

{anfertigen:1 fabrizieren:1

fertigen:1 herstellen:3 ...}

{créer:1

faire:13}

INVOLVED_

RESULT

architect

debris

{Architekt:1 ...}

{architecte:1

designer:1 ...}

{Trümmer:N}

build

XPOS_NEAR_

SYNONYM

{bauen:2}

{fabriquer:4 construire:2 ...}

{créer:13

réaliser:3}

{Aufbau:N}

CO_

AGENT_

RESULT

INVOLVED_

RESULT

{bâtir:N ériger:1 élever:8 ...}

foundation

building part

building

{Fundament:1

Grundfeste:N}

{Gebäudeteil:1}

{élément de construction:1}

{Gebäude:1}

{édifice:1 ...

construction:6}

HAS_

MERO_

PART

{Fassade:N}

{Säule:N}

{socle:N}

more consequences for knowledge based systems
More consequences for knowledge-based systems

+

  • Much more relation types in EuroWordNet than in Princeton WordNet
  • Therefore, domain-internal relations can be denser

--

  • Polysemy not represented in EuroWordNet: for most lexemes, we find only literal meanings
  • Some relation types not sufficiently instantiated

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

mapping
Mapping
  • Relate central synset of source domain to corresponding concept in target domain
    • directly in lexical resource (EWN)
  • Target domain: same structure as source domain
  • Target domain: lexical items have attested or potential metaphorical meaning,
    • related to that of the central synset in the same way as in the source domain.

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

slide18
destroy

create

creator

{zerstören:1}

{erschaffen:1 erzeugen:2

machen:5 schaffen:3}

{créateur:1}

INVOL-

VED_

AGENT

{zertrümmern:N

in Trümmer

legen:N}

create

{anfertigen:1 fabrizieren:1

fertigen:1 herstellen:3 ...}

{créer:1

faire:13}

INVOLVED_

RESULT

architect

debris

{Architekt:1 ...}

{architecte:1

designer:1 ...}

{Trümmer:N}

build

XPOS_NEAR_

SYNONYM

{bauen:2}

{fabriquer:4 construire:2 ...}

{créer:13

réaliser:3}

The BUILDING Domain in EWN

{Aufbau:N}

CO_

AGENT_

RESULT

INVOLVED_

RESULT

{bâtir:N ériger:1 élever:8 ...}

foundation

building part

building

{Fundament:1

Grundfeste:N}

{Gebäudeteil:1}

{élément de construction:1}

{Gebäude:1}

{édifice:1 ...

construction:6}

HAS_

MERO_

PART

{Fassade:N}

{Säule:N}

{socle:N}

{…:N}

instead of a conclusion
Instead of a conclusion...

Further topics:

  • Literal-figurative inconsistencies in current lexical databases!
  • World knowledge (relations) in lexical resources?
  • Your questions!?

LREC 2004 Linguistic Creativity, 29 May 2004 @ Birte Lönneker

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