Evolutionary Theory. ▪ Uses principles of evolution to explain modern human behavior ▪ Rape ▪ “Cads and dads” theory ▪ Criticism ▪ Difficult if not impossible to test ▪ Evidence sometimes runs counter to predictions. Evolutionary Theory (2 of 2). ▪ Rape
▪ Uses principles of evolution to explain modern human behavior
▪ “Cads and dads” theory
▪ Difficult if not impossible to test
▪ Evidence sometimes runs counter to predictions
▪ Evolutionary processes allow males who are pushy and aggressive in the pursuit of sex to pass on their genes successfully.
▪ “Cads and dads” theory
▪ Alternative strategies for reproductive success
▪ Cads—pretend caregivers who really want to reproduce with as many females as possible
▪ Dads—invest time and energy to help nurture and raise offspring
▪ Many biological factors appear to be related to criminal behavior:
▪ Results of biological harms?
▪ Biological factors contribute to criminality in certain environmental circumstances.
▪ Ignores some types of crimes
▪ Political crime
▪ Focuses on aggression or antisocial behavior in children and street crime in adults
▪ Still fear of ethical problems
▪ Biology not necessarily destiny
▪ Provide unsound justifications for the control of minority populations
▪ New eugenics
▪ Gene therapy
▪ Discrimination based on presence of biological risk indicators
▪ The upside? Criminality as a public health problem
▪ Prenatal care for at-risk mothers
▪ Strengthen environmental counterbalances for children with biological risk indicators
▪ How does a psychologist or psychiatrist develop and understand the criminal mind?
▪ What does psychology contribute to the study of the criminal mind?
▪ What is the psychological approach to the study of crime?
▪ Sigmund Freud
▪ Psychic Determinism
▪ Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind
▪ Id: “If it feels good, do it!”
▪ Superego: conscience—“Stealing is wrong.”
▪ Ego: psychological thermostat that regulates the wishes of the id with the social restrictions of the superego
▪ Used to reduce anxiety
▪ Overactive Id
▪ Delinquent Superego
▪ Delinquent Ego
▪ Almost impossible to test empirically (Cannot be directly observed and measured)
▪ Still maintains a place in psychology of criminal behavior
▪ Three types of learning
▪ Classical conditioning
▪ Operant conditioning
▪ Observational (vicarious) learning
▪ Positive reinforcement: increases the target behavior by rewarding the individual
▪ Negative reinforcement: increases the target behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus
▪ Punishment: reduces the odds of the target behavior being repeated
▪ Delinquency tied to parents’ failure to effectively condition their children away from bad behavior
▪ Effective parenting (monitoring, punishing, and reinforcing behavior)nondeliquent children (Patterson).
▪ Parental behaviors may have few effects on the child’s long-term development (Harris).
GERALD PATTERSON AND FRIENDS
▪ Albert Bandura (Bobo doll experiments): most human learning is not based on trial and error (operant conditioning).
▪ Effects on criminal behaviors are difficult to determine.
▪ Does media (TV and movies) influence aggression, violence, and criminal behavior?
▪ Conducive to role modeling
▪ Perpetrators not punished
▪ Targets of violence show little pain
▪ Few long-term negative consequences
▪ Criminals can learn pro-social behaviors to replace criminal actions.
▪ Classical Conditioning Aversion therapy
▪ Operant Conditioning Token economy
▪ Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning: humans advance through predictable stages of moral reasoning
▪ Ability to empathize
▪ Ability to anticipate consequences
▪ Ability to control anger
▪ Stage 1
▪ Right is blindly obeying those with power and authority.
▪ Emphasis is on avoiding punishment.
▪ Interests of others are not considered.
▪ Stage 2
▪ Right is furthering one’s own interests.
▪ Interests of others are important only as a way to satisfy self-interests.
▪ Stage 3
▪ Moral reasoning is motivated by loyalties to others and a desire to live up to other’s standards.
▪ Stage 4
▪ Right is following the rules of society and maintaining important social institutions (e.g., family, community).
▪ Stage 5
▪ Moral decisions are made by weighing individual rights against legal principles and the common good.
▪ Stage 6
▪ Moral decisions are based on universal principles (e.g., human dignity, desire for justice).
▪ Principles are considered across different contexts and are independent of the law.
▪ Rationalizations or denials that support criminal behavior
▪ For example, a criminal thinks, “I’m not really hurting anyone.”
▪ Criminals are more likely to express such thoughts
▪ Cognitive theory translates easily into practice.
▪ Combination cognitive-behavioral have track record of success
▪ Multisystematic therapy (MST)
▪ Creator Scott Henggeler and associates
▪ Reduces criminal behavior
▪ Comprehensive approach
▪ Targets many areas for change
▪ Uses many different techniques (not just cognitive-behavioral programs)
▪ Crime and delinquency related to the presence of some personality trait
▪ Personality trait: a characteristic of an individual that is stable over time and across different social circumstances
▪ Personality: the sum of personality traits that define a person
▪ A number of related traits combine to form super factors
▪ Several different models
▪ Five-factor model
▪ Tellegen’s personality model
▪ Recent studies use the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
▪ Personality dimensions in the MPQ
▪ Harm avoidance
▪ Negative emotionality
▪ Stress reaction
▪ Personality dimensions in the MPQ
▪ Positive emotionality
▪ Social potency
▪ Social closeness
▪ A distinct “criminal personality”
▪ One of the oldest concepts in criminology
1. Disregard for the rights of others. At least three of the following:
behaves in a way that is grounds for arrest, deceitful and manipulative, impulsive, aggressive, irresponsible, lack of remorse
2. Age 18 or older
3. A history of child conduct disorder
4. Antisocial behavior not a product of schizophrenic episode
▪ Personality traits consistently predict delinquency and crime.
▪ “Feeblemindedness” was once thought to be a cause of crime.
▪ What exactly is IQ and how does it relate to criminal behavior?
▪ Binet started out like his peers: Measuring people’s skull size
▪ There is an IQ gap of 8–10 points between criminals and noncriminals, even when statistically controlled for race and social class.
▪ IQ is not a very strong indicator of criminal behavior.
▪ Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang
▪ The Bell Curve
▪ Most criminologists find evidence of indirect effects
IQ School, Peers, etc. Crime
▪ The common emphasis of all psychological theories is on the individual.
▪ Modern Theory
▪ Many psychological theories translate well into treatment programs.