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SYNONYMS. Definition of Synonymy Criteria of Synonymy Types of Synonyms Types of Connotations Sources of Synonymy. Synonyms. words of the same language belong to the same part of speech possess one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings

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slide2
Definition of Synonymy
  • Criteria of Synonymy
  • Types of Synonyms
  • Types of Connotations
  • Sources of Synonymy
synonyms1
Synonyms
  • words of the same language
  • belong to the same part of speech
  • possess one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings
  • interchangeable, at least in some contexts
synonyms2
Synonyms
  • differ in morphemic shape
  • differ in phonemic shape
  • differ in shades of meaning, connotations
  • differ in style, idiomatic use
criteria of synonymy
Criteria of Synonymy
  • conceptual criterion
  • the criterion of interchangeability
  • semantic criterion
conceptual criterion
Conceptual Criterion
  • convey the same concept
  • differ in shades of meaning
  • differ in stylistic characteristics

BUT:Washington is the capital of the USA.(referent is the same, but there’s no linguistic relationship of synonymity)

semantic criterion
Semantic Criterion
  • have the same denotation
  • differ in connotations
the criterion of interchangeability
The Criterion of Interchangeability
  • interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning
the criterion of interchangeability1
The Criterion of Interchangeability

e.g. pretty, good-looking, handsome, beautiful girl

e.g. He glared at her (angrily)

He glazed at her (with admiration or interest)

He glanced at her (briefly)

classification of synonyms by v v vinogradov
Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)
  • absolute – words coinciding in all their shades of meaning and in all their stylistic characteristics
classification of synonyms by v v vinogradov1
Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)
  • ideographic(denotational)– words conveying the same concept but differing in shades of meaning
  • e.g. to look – to see – to gaze – to glare
classification of synonyms by v v vinogradov2
Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)
  • stylistic – words differing in stylistic characteristics
  • e.g. father – Dad - Daddy
types of connotations
Types of Connotations
  • connotation of degree or intensity

e.g. to like – to admire – to love – to adore – to worship

  • connotation of duration

e.g. to shudder (brief) – to shiver (lasting)

types of connotations1
Types of Connotations
  • emotive connotations

e.g. to tremble – to shiver – to shudder (emotion of fear, horror, disgust) – to shake

  • evaluative connotation – attitude towards the referent, labeling it as good or bad

e.g. well-known – famous - notorious (negative connotation) - celebrated

types of connotations2
Types of Connotations
  • causative connotation

e.g. to blush from modesty, shame or embarrassment

to redden from anger or indignation

  • connotation of manner

e.g. to stroll – to stride – to trot – to pace - to swagger – to stagger – to stumble

types of connotations3
Types of Connotations
  • connotation of attendant circumstances

e.g. to peep at smb/smth through a hole, a crack or opening, from a half-closed door, a curtain

to peer at smb/smth in darkness, through the fog, from a great distance, through dimmed glasses or windows

types of connotations4
Types of Connotations
  • stylistic connotation

e.g. (girl)girlie (colloquial), lass, lassie (dialect), bird, birdie, jane, fluff, skirt (slang), maiden (poetic), damsel (archaic)

dominant synonym
Dominant Synonym
  • high frequency of usage
  • broad combinability
  • broad general meaning
  • lack of connotations

e.g. to look – to glare – to gaze

to make – to produce – to create – to fabricate - to manufacture

hyponymy
Hyponymy
  • generic term –name for the notion of the genus as distinguished from the name of species – hyponyms

e.g. animal - dog – wolf – mouse

generic term names of the species included into generic term

synonymic differentiation
Synonymic Differentiation
  • the word survived with a meaning more or less removed from the original one and became an obsolete or archaic word
  • obsolete and modern words exist in the language but the obsolete word has a very specific meaning

e.g. girl – OE wench

sources of synonyms1
Sources of Synonyms
  • synonymic attraction - the referent which is very popular attracts a large number of synonyms

e.g.

  • variants and dialects of English

e.g. lass (Scottish) - girl (English)

long-distance call (USA) – trunk call (British)

sources of synonyms2
Sources of Synonyms
  • word-building

e.g. lab laboratory – shortening

cheery - cheerfulaffixation

anxiety – anxiousness

  • phrasal verbs and set expressions

e.g. to continue – to go on

to smoke – to have a smoke

sources of synonyms3
Sources of Synonyms
  • euphemisms – a shift of unpleasant meaning of a word to a more pleasant or milder one

e.g. drunk – merry

naked – in one’s birthday suit