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STEM AND BRANCH PATHOLOGY TOPICS. Organisms involved Causes Types of diseases and causal genera and species Management. 1. Causes - both abiotic and biotic agents

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slide1

STEM AND BRANCH PATHOLOGY

TOPICS

  • Organisms involved
  • Causes
  • Types of diseases and causal genera and species
  • Management
slide2

1. Causes - both abiotic and biotic agents

Abiotic agents - wind and branch and stem breakage (increased by decay), ice and snow breakage, lightning, lawn mower and weed whacker injury, etc.

Biotic agents – phytoplasmas, bacteria, fungi, mistletoes, (not many viruses in stems and branches of woody plants).

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2. Organisms involved

a. Phytoplasmas – yellows, wilts

b. Bacteria  - galls

slide4

c. Fungi

True Fungi

Ascomycota and Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti) - cankers  

Basidiomycota – decay fungi

Fungus-like organisms

Oomycota (stem cankers occasionally – Sudden oak death)

slide5

d. Parasitic plants

true mistletoes – hardwoods

dwarf mistletoes – conifers

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3. Types of diseases and common causal genera or species

  • Stem Decay –
  • Ganodermaapplanatum(Artist conk – conifers and hardwoods)
  • Postia sericeomolis – Pocket rot of W. redcedar
  • Phellinus igniarius - common on willow, alder and other hardwoods
  • Fomes fomentarius – white spongy trunk rot
  • Hardwoods –birch, alder, poplar
  • Fomitopsis pinicola – Red belt fungus (mostly dead conifers)
  • Phaeolusschweintizii(conifers).
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b. Mistletoes - conifers (dwarf mistletoes - Arceuthobium), hardwoods (true mistletoes - Phoradendron)

  • c. Cankers (Nectria, Cytospora, Hypoxylon (hardwoods), Neofusicoccum (madrone) , Phytophthora
  • Galls (Agrobacteriumtumefacians (many hosts), western gall rust caused by Endocronartiumharknessii - lodgepole pine
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e. Rusts (White pine blister rust (5 needle pines) - Cronartiumribicola, western gall rust - Endocronartiumharknessii,

f. Vascular wilts - Dutch elm disease (Ophiostomaulmi), Verticillium wilt, fireblight of cherries

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Phellinus

igniarius -

common on

willow, alder

and other

hardwoods

slide15

Fomes fomentarius – white spongy trunk rot

Hardwoods –birch, alder, poplar

slide20

Wall 1 -Vertical ends of

Cells – tracheids and

vessels - weakest

Wall 2 - Internal annual rings

Wall 3 - Ray

parenchyma

cells

o

Phenolic chemicals

laid down (fungicidal)

Wall 4 - Annual ring at the time of wounding - strongest

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WILDLIFE ASSOCIATED WITH

DECAY IN LIVING TREES

slide23

WILDLIFE USING DECAYED TREES

Bats

Black bears

Woodpeckers - number of species

American Martens

Vaux’s swifts

Owls

Red-breasted nuthatch

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SNAG CREATION METHODS

1. Topping at base of live crown or mid live crown

2. Girdling at different heights

3. Herbicides

4. Pheromones to attract bark beetles

5. Killing dwarf mistletoe infected trees

6. Planting artifical snags

ARTIFICIAL INOCULATION OF SNAGS AND

GREEN TREES

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DETECTION OF DECAY

1. Increment borers

2. Wood drills

3. Shigometer - electrical resistance

4. Resistograph - physical resistance

5. Ultrasound travel

6. Sonic tomography

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SHIGOMETER

USDA Forest Service

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ULTRASOUND

USDA Forest Service

slide35

TOMOGRAPHY

http://www.fujikura.co.uk/special/picus/picus.htm

http://www.argyll-arborists.co.uk/PicusSonicTomograph.htm