Understanding Hong Kong Politics, Parties and Governance 認識香港政治、政黨及管治 Prof. Lo Shiu Hing , Sonny - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Understanding Hong Kong Politics, Parties and Governance 認識香港政治、政黨及管治 Prof. Lo Shiu Hing , Sonny
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Understanding Hong Kong Politics, Parties and Governance 認識香港政治、政黨及管治 Prof. Lo Shiu Hing , Sonny

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  1. Understanding Hong Kong Politics, Parties and Governance 認識香港政治、政黨及管治 Prof. Lo ShiuHing, Sonny Department of Social Sciences The Hong Kong Institute of Education 香港教育學院 社會科學學系 盧兆興教授

  2. Contents 學習大綱 • Basic Concepts 基本概念 • Ten Basic Features of HK Politics 香港政治的十個特性 • Political Parties in HK: Features and Limitations 香港政黨的特性與限制 • Governance 管治 • Conclusion 結論 • Appendix 附錄

  3. 1. Basic Concepts 基本概念 (A) Politics 政治: • Who gets what, when and how (Harold Lasswell) 誰得到了什麼、在何時及用什麼方法獲得 (哈羅德· 拉斯韋爾) • Authoritative allocation of resources and values for society (David Easton) 社會資源和價值的權威性分配 (大衛· 伊斯頓)

  4. (B) Political parties 政黨: organizations that nominate candidates to participate in elections and grasp political power 提名人士參加選舉及步向執政的組織。 (C) Interest (pressure) groups 利益集團/團體: groups with members having common interests and they may lobby government for achieving their group interests (e.g. labor, religious, business, etc) 擁有共同利益的團體,他們遊說政府,謀取實現他們利益相關的政策(例如:勞工、宗教、商業及其他) 。 Note: Political parties capture power, not interest groups

  5. (D) The term government may have a number of definitions. For a broad one, it refers to “the system by which a state or community is governed*”, For a narrow one, it may just mean “the group of people with the authority to govern a country or state*”. 〝政府 (government)〞一詞可以有多個解釋, 廣義的說法:〝政府是一套管治國家或社區的系统 (the system by which a state or community is governed*) 〞。狹義的說法:〝政府是獲授權管治國家的一群人(the group of people with the authority to govern a country or state*) 〞。 *http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/government?q=government

  6. Generally, the government system is comprised of three branches, i.e. the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary (we may also include the military and the police). In practice, we shall adopt the narrow definition of government in HK and that refers to the Chief Executive, the Executive Council, and the Civil Service. 一般來說,管治政府的系统包括行政、立法、司法等三大部門。習慣上,我們多採甪狹義的說法,例如,香港特區政府是指執行管治的行政部門,包括特首、行政會議及公務員。 Note the definition of the state (in English): state refers to institutions (government system as mentioned above) governing a territory with population and boundary, and the state has legitimate coercion and its sovereignty.

  7. Article 62 of the Basic Law*基本法第六十二條 stipulates the powers and functions of the HKSAR government as follows 香港特別行政區政府行使下列職權: (1) To formulate and implement policies 制定並執行政策; (2) To conduct administrative affairs 管理各項行政事務; (3)To conduct external affairs as authorized by the Central People's Government under this Law 辦理本法規定的中央人民政府授權的對外事務; (4) To draw up and introduce budgets and final accounts編制並提出財政預算、決算; (5) To draft and introduce bills, motions and subordinate legislation 擬定並提出法案、議案、附屬法規; and (6)To designate officials to sit in on the meetings of the Legislative Council and to speak on behalf of the government 委派官員列席立法會並代表政府發言. *http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_4.html

  8. Organization Chart of the HKSAR Government (as at 4 May 2012)香港特區政府組織圖 (2012.5.4) http://www.gov.hk/en/about/govdirectory/govchart/index.htm 可進入網頁,選取中文版的“香港特區政府組織圖”

  9. Role of the Civil Service has been described by the official yearbook, Hong Kong 2010, as follows 公務員在特區政府的角色 (取材自香港 2010): “The civil service is responsible to the Chief Executive and supports the Government in formulating, explaining and implementing policies, conducting administrative affairs, delivering public services, and undertaking law enforcement and regulatory functions.” “公務員隊伍向行政長官負責,協助政府制訂、解釋和執行政策,處理各項行政事務,向市民提供服務,並履行執法和規管職能。” (http://www.yearbook.gov.hk/2010/en/pdf/E01.pdf)

  10. The civil service is a permanent, honest, meritocratic, professional and politically neutral institution. It employs about 4 per cent of Hong Kong’s labor force. It provides staff for all government departments and other units of the Administration. At December 31, 2010, the total strength of the civil service was 156,700 (excluding about 1,500 judges and judicial officers and Independent Commission Against Corruption officers). 公務員是一支常設隊伍,誠實正直、用人唯才、專業能幹,並且維持政治中立,人數約佔全港勞動人口的4%,為政府各部門和其他行政單位提供所需人手。截至二零一零年十二月三十一日,公務員總人數為156 700 人(不包括法官、司法人員和廉政公署人員共約1 500 人)。 (http://www.yearbook.gov.hk/2010/en/pdf/E01.pdf)

  11. Major Characteristics of Hong Kong Civil Service • 1. Meritocracy (recruitment/promotion based on merit, not guanxi), relatively clean government, efficiency and effectiveness • 2. Political neutrality (civil servants carry out policies regardless of their individual views and right in exercising their own preferences in voting and elections) • 3. Weberian system of bureaucracy: hierarchy, meritocracy, formalism, clear division of labor • 4. Implementation of public sector reforms

  12. Characteristics of Hong Kong Civil Service • 4. Public sector reforms aim at achieving 3Es (economy, efficiency, effectiveness as stressed by David Rosenbloom) and also accountability to the public • 5. Before July 1, 1997, Administrative Officers played a crucial role in policy making and the political system was led by the senior bureaucrats, but since the handover, the political system has been led by politicians appointed by Beijing and also the HKSAR Chief Executive, especially since the setting up of the Principal Officials Accountability System in July 2002

  13. Characteristics of Hong Kong Civil Service • 6. Hong Kong civil service has been subjected to rigorous internal and external checks and balances • Internally, the Audit Commission, the Commissioner for Administrative Complaints, and the Independent Commission Against Corruption are checking the powers and maladministration of government departments • Externally, the civil service is constantly under the scrutiny of political parties, mass media, interest groups, and criticisms of ordinary citizens

  14. (D) Governance 管治-- how to govern a place with efficiency, effectiveness and economy (3Es: David Rosenbloom). Good governance entails a clean, effective and efficient government. Cleanness refer to a system with rule of law, anti-corruption agency (independent, powerful, effective) and a meritocratic civil service (civil servants recruitment, assessment and promotion based on merit and performance, not on personal networks, not on guanxi, not on particularistic criteria) 如何對一個地區進行符合經濟,具備效率和效益而的治理 (大衛·羅森布魯姆) 。良好的管治必需涵蓋清廉、效率高而勝任的政府。廉潔是一個系統,內具法治精神、常設反貪機構 (應是獨立、有權責而高効的)、和備有用人唯才的公務員隊伍 (意指公務員的招聘、考核與晉升是建基於成績及表現,而非憑個人網絡、非靠關係與特別條件) 。

  15. (E) Governance is complex, but it is ideally stable, with a political system having feedback from the government to inputs from the society, media, interest groups 管治是一個複雜的議題,可是,有效的管治會帶來穩定,從政治系统理論來說,政府應向社會、傳媒、利益集團的〝輸入(inputs) 〞,包括意見及訴求,作出〝回應(feedback) 〞 。 Note: Since July 1, 1997, the HKSAR governance has been under the challenges of external environmental changes (economic crisis in the region and the world) and internal social, economic and political transformations, particularly the rise of social movements, the assertiveness of civil society, the checks from the mass media, and the significance of public opinion – it can be argued that HKSAR is now facing governability challenges

  16. New Governance Crisis in Hong Kong? • Professor Anthony Cheung has argued in his 2009 lecture at the HKIEd that there are three main crises affecting governance in Hong Kong • The crisis of legitimacy, crisis of trust, crisis of identity • In fact, legitimacy is concerned about not only how the Chief Executive is selected, but also the election method of the Legislative Council. • Distrust among politicians, between government and citizens, between Chief Executive and democrats persist • Hong Kong identity versus Chinese identity (cultural identity is separated from political one for many Hong Kong people)

  17. David Easton: Theory of Political System大衛·伊斯頓的政治系统理論 Environment 環境 Demands Inputs OUTPUTS Political System 政治系统 Decisions Support Feedback回應/回饋 Environment 環境 Outputs:輸出 Decision:決定 Input:輸入/投入 Demands:訴求 Support:支持

  18. 2. Ten Basic Features of Hong Kong Politics香港政治的十個特性 • Executive tends to be more powerful than the legislature (executive-led): executive refers to CE, ExCo, appointed officials, civil service or the government 行政主導: 行政部門由行政長官、行政會議、政治委任官員、公務員所組成,通稱為香港特區政府,按傳统,香港政府主導公共政策,其權力高於立法會。 However, this executive-led system in Hong Kong has problems: there is no ruling party, but a loose coalition with weak coalition members who cannot defend government policies in public and in the legislature.

  19. (B) Some degree of checks and balances (but NOT the American separation of power): judiciary can deal with citizens/groups complaints against the government; mass media as the fourth branch of government (checking the government daily and having pro-government, independent and pro-democracy media; but we need to be careful about some degree of self-censorship in some media organizations, including editors and reporters as well as media proprietors who have business interests in mainland China); legislature is not fully directly elected and it is constrained by the functional constituencies 對政府權力的制衡 (但有別於美國的三權分立) ,我們可以從多方面去理解,首先是法庭可以接受市民/團體的申訴,裁決政府部門有否濫權或違法。其次是被稱為第四權力部門* 的傳媒,他們每天均在監察政府,但它們有派別之分---獨立、建制和泛民主派,立場鮮明; 需要留意那些在一定程度上自我審查的傳媒,很多編輯、記者及媒體東主在中國經商,或在內地單位兼任職位,易有潛在的利益衝突。最後是立法會,並非所有議席皆由直選產生,有部份議員來自功能組別,他們較支持政府。 LegCo’s power is constrained by the ways in which private members bills can be passed (by both FCs/directly elected sectors)

  20. (C) Role of public opinion does have some impact on Hong Kong government and politics公眾輿論/民意 (public opinion) 對香港政府與政治帶來一些衝擊,公眾輿論可以通過多個方式去表達: • public opinion expressed in election results, through voting 選舉和投票, of Legislative Council and District Councils • through mass media (holding press conference, opinion surveys conducted by universities and research organizations)向傳媒提供意見(記者發怖會、大學與研究機構的民意調查), • lobbying government officials 遊說政府官員, • groups activities (protests, rallies, petitions): good example of public opinion having impacts was the personal reason of former CE Tung Chee-hwa to step down in March 2005, especially after the half a million protesters on July 1, 2003 組織群眾活動 (示威、集會、請願) 。2003年7月1日,50萬人上街遊行,促使前行政長官董建華以私人理由於2005年辭職,是為一例

  21. (D) Rule of law 香港的法治 • no person is above the law 沒有人 (包括政府官員) 凌駕於法律之上; • the concept of equality before the law is deep rooted in HK‘s common law system “法律面前,人人平等”是紮根於普通法系統裡的; • citizens can use legal channel to check officials against their possible abuse of power or maladministration 對於官員們的濫權或行政失當,市民可向法庭申訴; • the use of legal aid by some citizens 合資格的市民可申請法律援助; • the feature of adversarial procedures in the courts (having plaintiff, defendants, lawyers, and judges are politically neutral); procedural due process as the main feature of rule of law in Hong Kong 司法程序嚴謹,〝對抗訴訟程序 (adversarial procedures) 〞的特性的是法庭內設有原告與被告,雙方可指派代表,互相質詢和答辯,最後作結案陳詞,以尋求案件真相,釐清法律觀點,呈法官或陪審裁決。 法庭內律師和法官均須保持政治中立。

  22. (E) Civil liberties 公民自由 freedom of speech, of press, of assembly, of association, of protests, etc. Indeed, some critics are worrying about police role in dealing with protests. 市民享有言論、新聞、集會、結社、示威等自由。有評論擔心警方會收緊遊行示威的尺度。 (F) No-party ruling stratum 無黨派的執政階層: basically the HKSAR is governed by a group of ruling elites without political party background, except for a few principal officials (since 2002) who have party affiliations. ExCo is like the British Cabinet but ExCo members are mostly appointed elites, and none of the ExCo members is directly elected by citizens 除幾位問責官員(自2002年起)跟政黨有聯系外,政府高層包括行政長官並沒有政黨背景。行政會議就像英國的內閣。 但行政會議成員大部份是委任的精英,沒有一位是由市民直接選出的。

  23. (G) Dual Roles of Chief Executive 行政長官的雙重角色 accountable to both the central government and the people of Hong Kong (see Basic Law) 行政長官同時向中央政府及香港市民負責(請參考基本法) 。 (H) Semi-democracy nature of Hong Kong 香港的半民主本質 CE being elected by a group of 1,200 Election Committee members, he or she is not directly elected but has the mandate from a group of elites, and then the elected candidate is endorsed by the central government (he receives a certificate of endorsement). The role of central government is important in the process of approving or endorsing the elected candidate. Overall, Hong Kong has relatively high degree of autonomy from the central government (Beijing deals with national defense and foreign affairs) 行政長官由1200人所組成的選舉委員會選出,他/她非由直接選舉產生,而是得到一群社會精英投票支持的,及後,人選須經由中央政府通過才正式任命(候任行政長官會在北京接受委任狀) ,在通過和任命問題上,中央政府的角色至為重要。整體上, 香港享有高度自主 (北京只負責國防和外交 ) 。

  24. (I) Hong Kong has a relatively politically neutral civil service, which formulated and implemented policies before July 1, 1997, but which mainly implemented policies after the POAS system introduced in July 1, 2002. Now POAS politicians are dealing with formulation of policies, assisted by the senior civil servants (AOs/EOs roles). But this civil service-led system is now changed to politicians-led one, with the POAS in place 香港的公務員隊伍是頗為政治中立的,在1997年7月1日前,他們負責制定和實施政策。類似部長制的〝主要官員問責制 (POAS*) ” 於2002年7月1日實行,在問責制下,司、局長等主要官員屬政治任命,他們負責制定及推行政策,高級公務員,或稱〝政務官(AOs**)〞 〝行政主任(EOs ***)〞會從旁協助,自此,政務官制定政策的角色,備受削弱。 *Principal Officials Accountability System **Administrative Officers ***Executive Officers Are politicians in Hong Kong administratively much better and more competent than senior civil servants? Debatable?

  25. (J) A small but assertive/influential/publicly supported political opposition: pro-democracy parties cannot be the ruling party, but they are effective in getting votes, having members elected to legislature, lobbying the government, checking and balancing the administration in a very assertive manner (“paralyzing” function?) 政治上,香港的反對派 (一般指泛民派) 人數雖然不多,但具有自信, 擁有一定的影響力及群眾基礎。泛民勢力,雖然不可能成為執政黨,但他們在選舉中,亦見成効,令成員進入立法會,他們在議會內除進行遊說外,又監察政府,做法頗為進取。

  26. (stronger than Macao, mainland China, but weaker than the opposition in Taiwan as the Taiwan system is characterized by rotation of political party in power. Taiwan is a Western-style democracy in which the president is directly elected by citizens via universal suffrage and the rotation of party in power does exist twice, 2000 as DPP Chen Shui-bian came to power, and then 2008 as KMT Ma Ying-jeou returned to power) (香港的反對派比澳門、中國大陸強,但比台灣弱。 台灣的制度容許政黨輪流執政, 因他們奉行西方式民主,總統經普選產生,現巳出現两次政黨輪替, 2000年前台灣由國民黨掌權, 2000年民進黨的陳水扁在競選中勝出,上台執政,2008年復由國民黨的馬英九當選總統,恢復執政。)

  27. (3) Political Parties in Hong Kong: Features and Limitations 香港政黨的特徵及限制 (A) Cadre type parties (small parties)without the prospect of grasping political power to govern Hong Kong: largest one is DAB, and most parties are small ones (DP, LP, NPP, LSD, PP, LP, ADPL), but they all cannot get more than half of the seats in the LegCo 香港政黨多屬 〝幹部黨(cadre party) 〞,成員不多,欠缺掌握管治香港的前境。最大的黨派是民建聯,其餘均屬小黨派 (民主黨、公民黨、新民黨、社民連、人民力量、民協) ;每個政黨在立法會所佔的議席均不超過一半。

  28. (B) Functions 香港政黨的功能 aggregate the interests of their constituencies and reflect views to the government凝聚各選區(constituencies)利益, 向政府反映意見 changing government policies 爭取修訂政府政策, competing in elections 參加競選,爭取選民支持, trying to get more seats in LegCo and District Councils (remember the former Urban and Regional Councils were abolished in 2000) 爭取更多立法會和區議會的席位(市政局和區域市政局 在2000年被廢除) They cannot organize the government unlike Western style democracies with rotation of parties in power

  29. Composition of The Fourth Legislative Council第四屆立法會(2008-2012)

  30. HK LegCo and Political Parties Year DP Frontier/LSD CP LP DAB FTU Total 1998 13 Frontier 4 --- 10 9 1 60 2000 12 Frontier 4 --- 8 11 1 60 2004 9 ------------ 6 10 10 3 60 2008 8 LSD 3 5 7 10 4 60 2012 6 LSD 1 PP3 6 5 13 6 70 Note: In 2011, 23 of the 60 LegCo members were pan-democrats (DP, LSD, CP) and 37 pro-Beijing (DAB, LP, FTU). In 2012, 27 out 70 LegCo members are pan-democrats. PP stands for People’s Power in 2012. Labor Party is new in 2012 and gets 4 seats in total in the LegCo.

  31. Implications of 2012 LegCo elections for Hong Kong Politics • 1. The rise of the democratic left is obvious, with the People Power grasping three seats – this signals the popularity of the democratic left and the increasing support of citizens for this new political force • 2. The decline of the Democratic Party shows generational change in the pan-democratic front • 3. The persistence of pro-Beijing and pro-establishment domination in the Legislative Council • 4. With 27 democrats elected to the 70-member LegCo, the future of democratic reform appears to be bleak, pessimistic and difficult

  32. (C) Parties need the help of interest groups in elections and non-elections time 香港政黨與利益集團關係密切,無論在選舉或非選舉期間,政黨均受到與利益集團的襄助: • DAB relies on FTU and many societies (Fujianese association, New Territories Society) 民建聯依靠工聯會, • pro-democracy parties backed up by Professional Teachers Union and Confederation of Trade Unions 泛民主派則有教協和職工盟作支援, • LP has been backed by business interest groups (HK General Chamber of Commerce and Chinese General Chamber of Commerce), etc.自由黨受到商界支持(香港總商會/香港中華總商會) 。

  33. (D) Parties are particularly active before the elections, and their demands are quite often taken into consideration by the government months prior to elections (CY Leung’s reorganization plan abortive) 政黨在選舉前比較活躍,通常在選舉前幾個月政府會重視他們的訴求 (E) Parties are divided ideologically (left -- pro-welfare and pro-reform vs. right -- pro-business and pro-status quo) 理念上,政黨之間存在的分歧(左派:重福利, 支持改革 vs右派:親商界,主張維持現狀) 。

  34. (F) Since parties cannot be ruling parties, they tend to criticize governments for the sake of gaining votes and popularity; hence government needs to secure a coalition of pro-government groups/parties (DAB, LP, NPP) to get bills/policies passed in LegCo. 由於政黨不能成為執政黨,他們傾向批評政府以爭取選票及知名度。因此,政府要聯合建制派 (民建聯、自由黨、新民黨),確保法案/政策在在立法會得以通過。 (G) Legislative politics is fierce in Hong Kong because of parties competition and rivalry: filibuster, throwing bananas, president ending filibuster and resulting in judicial review (confrontational politics) 因為政黨之間存在競爭和對立,香港的議會政治頗為激烈: 拉布、掟蕉、主席剪布及司法覆核等手法,屢見不鮮。

  35. (H) Parties are regarded negatively as fighting among themselves, criticizing government without constructive impacts, and bickering among themselves in LegCo, but they do also have positive roles of enhancing checks and balances against the government (John Tsang's decision to follow Macao in distributing HK$6,000 to citizens in 2011 was due to parties lobbying), and they do aggregate the interests of citizens and successfully lobby government to change its policies – both advantages and disadvantages 政黨在一般人心中是頗為負面的,因為,他們好鬥, 好批評政府(但沒有帶來具建設性的衝擊) ,好在議會裡爭吵。可是,政黨亦扮演著正面的角色: • 加強對行政權力的制衡、政府的問責; • 凝聚市民利益; • 遊說政府修訂政策(2011年3月2日,基於政黨的壓力,財政司曾俊華才決定效法澳門向市民派發6000元) 。

  36. (I) Cross-parties alliance and consensus are rare in Hong Kong, mainly due to ideological disputes and differences. May 24, 2010, some pan-democrats reached a compromise with the Liaison Office to democratize HK’s political system which is devising a new functional constituency, “District Council (Second)”. 跨黨聯盟、尋求共識在香港是不常見的,主要原因是理念上的分歧和爭論。2010年5月24日部份民主派政黨聯盟和中聯辦達到共識,把政治體制民主化,衍生出新一屆立法會的「超級區議會」議席 。

  37. (4) Governance 管治 (A) Basically, the Hong Kong political system works well, with feedbacks from the government to inputs from society, media, groups, parties 香港的政治系统在是運作得不錯的,一方面,社會、 媒體、 利益集團及政黨均有渠道發表意見,形成系统內的輸入(inputs) ,另一方面,政府亦會在作出回應(feedbacks)。 (B) Clean government could be traced back to the formation of the ICAC in 1974 and corrupt culture among civil servants could change over time (powerful, single, legally empowered agency like Singapore and Hong Kong is very critical to clean governance) 1974年,廉政公署成立,漸漸地,它改變了公務員的貪污風氣,使香港擁有一個廉潔的政府 (一個強而有力、有法律授權、獨立運作的反貪機構,對擁有廉潔稱號的香港和新加坡政府來說,至為重要) 。

  38. (C) Basic Law and governance: some key areas of the Basic Law that we need to go through (eg. Article 158 interpretation of Basic Law, A73(9) impeach CE needs ¼ legislators’ motion, committee formed by Chief Justice, and then 2/3 majority vote) 我們會討論基本法與管治相關的地方。 (D) Challenges to governance in Hong Kong 香港管治的挑戰(economics and politics can be mixed together經濟與政治的發展經常交織在一起): • economic shocks and decline can easily bring about legitimacy problem of the government (legitimacy defined in terms of performance and procedures -- whether government performs well and whether procedures are followed) as citizens can perceive governance as ineffective 經濟的震蕩與衰退,很容易令市民質疑政府的〝 合法性* 〞,因市民不會坐視缺乏效率的管治 (Asian financial crisis 97-98 and its aftermath 1997 -98亞洲金融危機及其後的演變) ; *合法性 (legitimacy) 指政府被市民認受的程度,會涉及两個層面:(一) 政府的表現 (performance) 被市民認受的程度; (二) 管治權在法理程序(procedure)上的被市民認受的問題。

  39. income gap between the rich and the poor leading to public distrust of the government 貧富懸殊(needs better social welfare, better housing policies 現正激起市民對福利及房屋政策的訴求); the ways in which protests and demonstrations are handled by the government and police 政府和警方在處理遊行示威的手法 (recall 1956 and 1967 riots, 1989 Hong Kong protests, 1982 taxi strike, 2003 half a million protestors on July 1 事件重温: 1956年及1967年暴動、1982年的士罷駛、1989年因悼念〝六 .四〞的遊行,2003年7月1日50萬人上街); social and identity conflicts 社會及身份衝突 (conflicts between environmental protectionists and police over High Speed Rail Link and the demolition of Queen's Pier 多宗關於環保人士與警方衝突事件:保衛皇后瑪頭、反高鐵); and

  40. disputes over policies issues 具廣泛爭議性的政策(such disputes are wide-ranging, including whether mainland pregnant women should be allowed to give birth in Hong Kong if their husbands are not Hong Kong people, whether mainland drivers should be allowed to drive their vehicles into Hong Kong 多宗關於中港矛盾的政策: 雙非孕婦在港產子、 大陸司機在港駕車問題) Eg: national education controversy before 2012 LegCo election leading to government concession This example shows the difficulties of governance in HKSAR, especially if policies were not sufficiently explained and promoted to the members of the public (E) Good governance needs the government to bridge the communication gap between the rulers and the ruled. Otherwise riots like those in 1967 could erupt 理想的管治是政府要為官員和市民縮窄溝通嫌隙,否則,香港會再次爆發〝 67暴動〞般的騷亂。

  41. (5) Conclusion 總結 • Good governance means that the political system has feedback from the government to inputs from society and the system is in equilibrium (social harmony). 良好的管治是指一個政治系統裡,政府對社會的〝輸入(inputs) 〞作出適度的〝回應(feedback) 〞,使整個系統處於平衡狀態(即社會和諧) • But the political system is often under various challenges, socially, economically and politically. How to manage politics in a skillful way is a governance and a political issue -- who gets what, when and how, and the authoritative decisions on the allocation of values. 但是,政治系統通常經歷各方面的挑戰, 社會的、經濟的、政治的。如何運用政治技巧去管理,不單是管治,也是政治的議題 --- 誰得到了什麼、在何時及用什麼方法獲得,以及資源與價值的分配,皆是知易行難的。 • Otherwise, government actions and policies can be challenged by various groups, parties, and citizens. 不能掌握政治技巧,消解矛盾,平衡利益,政府的行動和政策必然受到來自團體、政黨、市民的挑戰。

  42. Political parties can play the role of intermediary, acting as a bridge between rulers and the ruled, and parties' role is similar to interest groups, and the mass media (except for the fact that parties want to grasp political power through elections). 政黨在政治系統像是一位中介人,擔當政府與市民之間的橋樑,從這個角度看,政黨的角色類似利益集團體和傳媒,(不同的地方是,政黨更會派人參選,替上台執政作出準備)。 In short, understanding Hong Kong politics and political parties can help us comprehend the entire political system and the issue of governance in a much deeper way. 總之,認識香港政治和政黨,會加深我們對整個政治系統的運作,以及管治問題的理解。

  43. (6) Appendix 附錄 • Composition of Legislative Council (1947-1982) 立法會架構(1947-1982 ) • The Changing Composition of Legislative Council (1984-1995)立法會架構 (1984-1995) • Provisional Legislative Council (1996-1997) 臨時立法會 (1996-1997) • Composition of Legislative Council (1998-2012) • Hong Kong Chief Executive Election

  44. Composition of Legislative Council (1947-1982)

  45. 立法會架構 : (1947-1982 ) Source: N.J. Miners, “The Government and Politics of Hong Kong,” London: Oxford University Press, 1981, p.126.

  46. The Changing Composition of Legislative Council in Hong Kong (1984-1995)

  47. 立法會架構 (1984-1995) Source: Lo Shiu-hing, “Governing Hong Kong: Legitmacy, Communication, and Political Decay,” New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2001, p.166

  48. Provisional Legislative Council (1997) “The NPC decided on August 31, 1994, that the term of Hong Kong's last legislature under British rule would cease on June 30, 1997. This was because the 1995 electoral arrangements for that legislature were not compatible with the Basic Law and the NPC's decision on the formation of the first legislature of the HKSAR, passed by the NPC on April 4, 1990. On March 24, 1996, the Preparatory Committee for the HKSAR resolved to establish the Provisional Legislative Council …The same resolution also provided that the PLC should start operation after the first Chief Executive of the HKSAR was elected and should cease operation after the first Legislative Council of the HKSAR was formed, that its term should not extend beyond June 30, 1998…The 60 Provisional Legislative Councillors were elected by the Selection Committee on December 21, 1996. On January 25, 1997, the PLC held its first meeting in Shenzhen”  http://www.yearbook.gov.hk/1997/eindex.htm

  49. 臨時立法會 (1997) “全國人民代表大會在一九九四年八月三十一日決定,香港在英國管治下的最後一屆立法機關的任期於一九九七年六月三十日結束,因為該屆立法機關一九九五年的選舉安排不符合《基本法》和 由 全國人民代表大會於一九九零年四月四日通過關於香港特別行政區第一屆立法機關產生辦法的決定。 一九九六年三月二十四日,香港特別行政區籌備委員會決議成立臨時立法會…同一項決議又規定,臨時立法會須在香港特別行政區第一任行政長官選出後開始運作,直至香港特別行政區第一屆立法會產生為止。臨時立法會的任期不得超越一九九八年六月三十日…一九九六年十二月二十一日,推選委員會選出 60 位臨時立法會議員。一九九七年一月二十五日,臨時立法會在深圳舉行首次會議。” http://www.yearbook.gov.hk/1997/cindex.htm

  50. Composition of Legislative Council (1998-2012)