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科研论文撰写:认识、准备与行文 PowerPoint Presentation
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科研论文撰写:认识、准备与行文

科研论文撰写:认识、准备与行文

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科研论文撰写:认识、准备与行文

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  1. 科研论文撰写:认识、准备与行文 上海外国语大学 虞建华

  2. 一、论文撰写的认识层面(1) 问题:施教与研究文学、语言学、翻译理论有什 么用? • “学以致用”与“学以致知” • “职业培训”与“高等教育” • “一碗水”与“一桶水” • “教书匠”与“学者” • “应用英语专业”和“英文专业”

  3. 一、论文撰写的认识层面(2) • “Publish or perish.” • “数学是文科还是理科?” • 教师的思辨能力与学生的综合素质 • 视野和“思维体操” • “无形推手”:不会更变的评价尺度

  4. 论文撰写的准备(1):个人资料库 • 记忆的不可靠性 • 学术卡片的优越性 • 卡片的内容:信息、引述、史实、概要、关联、提示、批判、解读等 • 资料的搜索方法

  5. Sample note (1):The call card

  6. Sample note (2): the call card

  7. Sample note (3):

  8. Sample note (4):

  9. Sample note (5):

  10. 论文撰写的准备(2):个人思想库 • 发现自己的创造力 • 养成收集“想法”的习惯 • 让“想法”产生价值的 • 以卡片的形式记录随时出现的相关想法。

  11. 三、论文撰写需要注意的几个方面: • 论文标题 • 论文提要 • 关键词 • 行文的语言 • 修改与润饰

  12. 论文标题: • 正确:写实、概括、总结,直切主题,触及要点,避免误解 • 错误:抽象、象征、多义,进行诗化或泛化 • 错误:“亢龙有悔的老年” • 正确:“海明威短篇小说中的老年形象分析”

  13. 内容提要与关键词(1): 杰克·伦敦北疆小说中的生态意识 内容提要: 在他的有生之年,杰克·伦敦曾经是美国最引人注目的作家,被称为文坛“灰姑娘”,是美国自然主义文学的代表。虽然后来批评界对他的兴趣渐渐冷却,但他仍然是个值得关注的作家。他的很多早期作品以阿拉斯加荒原为背景,其中表达了一种超前的生态意识,强调人与自然的和谐共存,强调自然的修复功能。这些思想对于今天我们认识人类社会仍然具有启迪意义,他的作品因此具有持久的价值 关键词: 人与自然;和谐共存;荒原道德观; 生态意识;生态批评

  14. 内容提要与关键词(2): 内容提要: 杰克·伦敦在其以阿拉斯加为背景的早期小说中,表达了一种超前的生态意识,在多方面探讨人与自然的关系,凸显人与自然和谐共存的基本理念。作家渲染大自然的力量,告诫人们不能凌驾于自然之上,而对自然要有一种敬畏;他强调人的适应力,而不是改造力;他宣扬一种“荒原”道德观,批判正在快速工业化的美国文明的种种弊端;他认为回归自然是一种精神理疗,可以治愈在城市文明中枯萎的人的精神。这些认识与今天的生态观不谋而合,具有恒久的价值。 关键词: 杰克·伦敦; 北疆小说; 生态意识;生态批评

  15. 内容提要与关键词(3): 内容提要: 【内容】杰克·伦敦在其以阿拉斯加为背景的早期小说中,表达了一种超前的生态意识,在多方面探讨人与自然的关系,凸显人与自然和谐共存的基本理念。【步骤1】作家渲染大自然的力量,告诫人们不能凌驾于自然之上,而对自然要有一种敬畏; 【步骤2】他强调人的适应力,而不是改造力; 【步骤3】他宣扬一种“荒原”道德观,批判正在快速工业化的美国文明的种种弊端; 【步骤4】他认为回归自然是一种精神理疗,可以治愈在城市文明中枯萎的人的精神。【意义】这些认识与今天的生态观不谋而合,具有恒久的价值。

  16. 内容提要与关键词(4): • 关键词是检索的技术需要,要有可操作性。 • 关键词:人与自然;和谐共存;荒原道德观; 生态意识;生态批评 • 关键词:杰克·伦敦; 北疆小说; 生态意识;生态批评

  17. 内容提要与关键词(5): • 选择关键词: 1、不用动词,如:发展,评价等; 2、不用一般名词,如:趋势,影响力等; 3、要用实词; 4、要粗细搭配,先宽后专

  18. 内容提要与关键词(6): 一篇关于汉语中“了”字语义和语法功能的论文 • 关键词: 汉语;文字学;虚词;了

  19. 内容提要与关键词(7): 标题:“《理想丈夫》中的政治伦理与家庭和谐” • 内容提要:王尔德在他的戏剧创作中,已放弃了他所坚守的唯美主义艺术原则,逐步走向关注社会、关注道德的现实主义艺术,涉及了婚姻、家庭、政治等。在结构相对复杂的《理想丈夫》一剧中,王尔德以自己特有的艺术手段呈现了丰富而深刻的伦理内涵,多种伦理情感交织在一起,从而推动着剧情的展开。剧中所表达的种种伦理情感,概括起来起来就是:坚持正义的政治伦理,以爱为基础的家庭伦理以及由此而形成的以善、恶、美、丑为主要内容的社会伦理。 • 关键词:道德;政治伦理;宽容;和谐

  20. 内容提要与关键词(8): • 标题:【覆盖不全】“《理想丈夫》中的政治伦理与家庭和谐” • 标题:“王尔德剧作《理想丈夫》中的伦理主题研究”

  21. 内容提要与关键词(9): 内容提要:【内容不明】王尔德在他的戏剧创作中,已放弃了他所坚守的唯美主义艺术原则,逐步走向关注社会、关注道德的现实主义艺术,涉及了婚姻、家庭、政治等。【步骤不清】在结构相对复杂的《理想丈夫》一剧中,王尔德以自己特有的艺术手段呈现了丰富而深刻的伦理内涵,多种伦理情感交织在一起,从而推动着剧情的展开。【意义缺失】剧中所表达的种种伦理情感,概括起来起来就是:坚持正义的政治伦理,以爱为基础的家庭伦理以及由此而形成的以善、恶、美、丑为主要内容的社会伦理。

  22. 内容提要与关键词(10): 内容提要:【内容】在剧作《理想丈夫》中,王尔德不再坚守唯美主义艺术原则,而转向关注社会、关注道德的现实主义再现。【步骤】剧作以特有的艺术手段呈现了丰富而深刻的伦理内涵,(添加)政治伦理……;社会伦理……;家庭伦理……。【意义】作家直视当时社会中存在的种种道德问题,表现时代的道德主题,并试图提出自己的道德理想。

  23. 内容提要与关键词(11): • 关键词:【设定错误】道德;政治伦理;宽容;和谐 • 关键词:王尔德;《理想丈夫》;伦理主题

  24. 行文:学术论文的语言、组织与润饰 • Richard D. Altick, The Art of Literary Research (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1975)

  25. About the language, some remarks: (1) What is easy to read has been difficult to write. The labor of writing and rewriting, correcting and re-correcting, is the due exacted by every good book from its author, even if he knows from the beginning exactly what he wants to say. A limpid style is invariably the result of hard labor, and the easily flowing connection of sentence with sentence and paragraph with paragraph has always been won by the sweat of the brow. (Richard D. Altick, The Art of Literary Research, p.181)

  26. About the language, some remarks: (2) • Actually, though there unquestionably is such a thing as “academese” or “dissertation style,” it has no reason to exist, and every scholarly writer should avoid it assiduously. (183) • There is no difference between a good scholarly style and a good English style addressed to the intelligent layman. (p183)

  27. About the language, some remarks: (3) The hallmark of good scholarly prose is lucidity. It is not easy to achieve. It never has been – the old adage about hard writing being the prerequisite to easy reading is a sound one – but it has become even less so in an age when too much of the critical writing on which the young scholar is nurtured is opaque, tortuous, and jargon-laden. (p.183)

  28. About the language, some remarks: (4) The inviolable rule of good scholarly writing is: Say what you have to say, and when you’ve said it, quit. Longwindedness, repetitions, digressions are as out of place in a research article or book as they are anywhere else. The scholarly writer…should think of himself instead as a welterweight striving to lose enough poundage to box a featherweight. (p.185)

  29. About the language, some remarks: (5) The four great requisites of good scholarly writing never change: 1. Accuracy of facts. 2. Soundness of reasoning. 3. Clear explanation of the topic’s significance. 4. Unaffected, terse, lucid prose.

  30. About the language, some remarks: (6) “The most direct method and style is the most suggestive one.” “True wit is best set in plain style.” -- Herbert Spencer, The Style of Writing

  31. The writing and the revision (1): Only when they are compelled to lay out their argument in sentences and paragraphs, scrupulously designed to lead the prospective reader from point to point, do they finally see it as a logical whole, and only then do remaining deficiencies of evidence and reasoning become apparent. (189)

  32. The writing and the revision (2): But even the most conscientious preliminary outlining and sentence-by-sentence writing seldom results in a first draft that can also stand as the final one. Some writers, in fact confess that their hardest and most profitable thinking is done in the very act of composition. (189)

  33. The writing and the revision (3): Re-thinking calls for rearrangement, and re-arrangement means re-writing; perhaps a paragraph here, a whole page there – or the whole article or chapter. But one can find a positive gain in necessity. For if the process of writing is in part destructive, exposing as it does the flaws of one’s thinking, it can also be creative, because by forcing reconsideration of what has been said, it sharpens insight into the meaning of one’s material, suggests new sources of data, perhaps makes it possible to extend the argument a further step. (189)

  34. The writing and the revision (4): Ernest Hemingway (talking about his own writing): The first draft of anything is shit.

  35. “Allow to age before bottling”: Now piece of scholarly writing can be the worse for mellowing: most books and articles, in fact, improve if they are allowed to age before bottling. A cardinal rule of scholarship, as of criticism, is to be wary of one’s first enthusiasm. Indulge it, to be sure; let it run its course in the composition of the first draft. Btu then let time do its slow work. Put the manuscript away for as long as you can – weeks, months, years. When you finally take it out again, you will have a new perspective (and better judgment). (197)

  36. 谢谢各位!