how cognate strategy instruction promotes vocabulary for the ccss n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
How Cognate Strategy Instruction Promotes Vocabulary for the CCSS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
How Cognate Strategy Instruction Promotes Vocabulary for the CCSS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

How Cognate Strategy Instruction Promotes Vocabulary for the CCSS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 116 Views
  • Uploaded on

How Cognate Strategy Instruction Promotes Vocabulary for the CCSS. Dana L. Grisham National University ACOE 6 th Annual English Learner Conference January 26, 2013 Hayward, CA. Words are Important. It is how we communicate with one another – orally and in writing

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'How Cognate Strategy Instruction Promotes Vocabulary for the CCSS' - gaetan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
how cognate strategy instruction promotes vocabulary for the ccss

How Cognate Strategy InstructionPromotes Vocabulary for the CCSS

Dana L. Grisham

National University

ACOE 6th Annual English Learner Conference

January 26, 2013

Hayward, CA

words are important
Words are Important
  • It is how we communicate with one another – orally and in writing
  • We learn with, through, and about words
  • Highly correlated with reading comprehension (.6 to .8 correlation)
  • Academic language is the key to achievement
vocabulary gap for diverse students
Vocabulary Gap for Diverse Students
  • Students who struggle as readers
  • Children learning English as a second language
  • Children with special needs
the gap widens over time
The Gap Widens Over Time
  • The Matthew Effect (Stanovich, 1986). The more you know, the more you grow…
  • 4th grade slump due in part to increased vocabulary load of textbooks and academic subject matter (Chall, 1983)
ccss 2010
CCSS, 2010
  • Necessity of reading “complex texts” independently
  • Increased emphasis on non-fiction texts
  • Need for “close reading”
  • Need to increase “skill, concentration, and stamina”
  • What can we do to increase the reading comprehension of more than 5 million Spanish-speaking ELLs?
theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework
  • English and Spanish cognates share a common Latin root
  • Students (and adults) often fail to recognize cognates unless they are taught awareness of the relationship
  • Once taught, the transparency of cognate pairs may enhance bilingual students’ reading comprehension (August & Shanahan, 2006)
  • Research documents the efficacy of Cognate Strategy Instruction (Lubliner & Grisham, 2012; Moran, 2011)
language and academic language
Language and Academic Language
  • A “third” language for many! (Zwiers, 2005)
  • Book language (CALP) (Cummins, 1979)
  • Multiple vs. “Standard” Literacies (Valdez, 2000)
  • Specific academic contexts (and accountability) (Schleppegrell, 2001)
  • “…a variety or a register of English used in professional books and characterized by specific linguistic features associated with academic disciplines.” (Scarcella, 2003)
academic language
Academic Language
  • Cognates are plentiful in Academic Language (Coxhead, 2000; Hiebert & Lubliner, 2011)
  • English may share as many as 15,000 cognates with similar orthographic and phonological features (Nash, 1997)
  • Knowledge of cognates may provide Spanish-speaking bilingual students with an advantage in learning academic language (Lubliner & Grisham, 2012)
language evolves
Language Evolves
  • Language is dynamic, but rule governed
  • Scarcella’s Components
    • Phonological
    • Lexical
    • Grammatical
    • Sociolinguistic
    • Discourse
a grammatical component
Ordinary

Knowledge of morphemes entailing semantic, syntactic, relational, phonological, and distributional properties; syntax; knowledge of grammatical co-occurrence restrictions, punctuation.

Academic

All of the foregoing plus knowledge of additioanl structures (such as passives, parallel clauses, conditionals, and complex clauses)

Example: bacterium, bacteria

A Grammatical Component
a phonological component
Ordinary

Knowledge of everyday English sounds and the ways sounds are combined, stress, and intonation. Example: ship v. sheep; sheet v. cheat

Academic

Knowledge of the phonological features of academic English, including stress, intonation, and sound patterns. Example: demography v. demographic

A Phonological Component
a lexical component
Ordinary

Knowledge of the forms and meanings of words in everyday situations; knowledge of the ways words are formed with roots and affixes; parts of speech and grammatical constraints

Example: find out

Academic

Knowledge of the forms and meanings of words used across academic disciplines; academic roots and affixes; parts of speech and academic grammatical constraints.

Example: investigate

A Lexical Component
a grammatical component1
Ordinary

Knowledge of morphemes entailing semantic, syntactic, relational, phonological, and distributional properties; syntax; knowledge of grammatical co-occurrence restrictions, punctuation.

Academic

All of the foregoing plus knowledge of additioanl structures (such as passives, parallel clauses, conditionals, and complex clauses)

Example: bacterium, bacteria

A Grammatical Component
a sociolinguistic component
Ordinary

Knowledge that enables one to understand how sentences are produced and understood appropriately, frequently occurring functions and genres of everyday situations. Example: Making statements

Academic

Knowledge of increased language functions. Example: Genres, including scientific writing

Other “registers”

A Sociolinguistic Component
a discourse component
Ordinary

Knowledge of basic discourse devices in talk and writing; informal writing types; organizational signals that let talk and writing flow.

Academic

Knowledge of features of academic discourse such as transitions and other organizational signals to aid reading, see relationships; follow logical lines of thought.

A Discourse Component
cognitive dimensions of academic literacy
Cognitive Dimensions of Academic Literacy
  • Knowledge: declarative, procedural, conditional
  • Higher Order Thinking Skills
  • Strategic Component
  • Metalinguistic Component
what are cognates
What are Cognates?
  • Cognates are words that look and/or sound alike in two languages (example: operation/operación (Spanish)
  • Research suggests that Spanish-speaking students can be taught to recognize cognates and use cognate information to comprehend English texts (Bravo, Hiebert, & Pearson, 2005; Proctor, Dalton & Grisham, 2007; Lubliner & Grisham, 2012)
research question
Research Question
  • What is the relationship between cognate recognition and independent reading by intermediate-level Spanish-speaking English Learners at the secondary level?
  • In follow on research we will focus on how easy it is for monolingual teachers to teach CSI.
methods
Methods
  • Mixed method study with data collection and analysis still in progress
  • Participants: an experienced bilingual teacher/researcher, two university researchers, an intact 6th grade class (N=28) of varying CELDT levels
  • Focus on science texts with implementation of Cognate Strategy Instruction (CSI) (Lubliner & Grisham, 2012) in an urban public middle school
methods1
Methods
  • Observations of the classroom, teacher and researcher field notes, pre/post assessments of cognate knowledge
  • Interviews of teacher, artifacts from the classroom
  • Quantitative and Qualitative data analysis with member checking
assessing student learning
Assessing Student Learning
  • Cognates in Isolation
  • Cognates in Context
  • MAZE (CLOZE) Assessment for Comprehension
  • Think-Alouds for Cognate Use and Comprehension
findings from the 2011 2012 study
Findings from the 2011-2012 Study
  • Bilingual Spanish-speaking students in a 6th bilingual class were compared to bilingual Spanish-speaking students in a mainstream class in the same school on two tests of cognate recognition
    • Cognates in Isolation (40 matching items)
    • Cognates in Context (74 cognates in a 300-word natural science text)
  • The bilingual class students received 14 lessons explicitly teaching the cognate strategy from their normal classroom teacher. No explicit cognate instruction was provided to the mainstream class
findings from the 2011 2012 study1
Findings from the 2011-2012 Study
  • Groups did not differ significantly on the Cognate Recognition Pretest but did differ significantly on the Cognates in Context Pretest
  • Posttest differences on both tests were significant
findings from the 2011 2012 study2
Findings from the 2011-2012 Study
  • Magnitude of differences between groups on posttests was very large (more than .14 large effect)
  • Results demonstrated that bilingual Spanish-speaking students who received explicit cognate instruction identified a much larger number of cognates in isolation and cognates in context than bilingual Spanish-speaking students who did not receive such instruction.
preliminary findings from the study 2012 2013
Preliminary Findings from the Study 2012-2013
  • Implementation of 4 of 14 lessons to date
  • “A huge light bulb goes off!” Cognates unknown to students prior to CSI
  • Scaffolding of close reading through CSI
    • Science text display with Elmo
    • Identification of cognates before reading
    • Reading together with focus on comprehension
    • Discussion of text
    • Independent reading with all students as language resources
preliminary findings from the study
Preliminary Findings from the Study
  • The Cognate Word Wall
  • Taking cognates “outside the classroom”
    • Parents
    • Other classes
    • Cognate searches and sticky notes
  • Empowerment of students
    • “They are excited!”
    • “They can now use what they didn’t know they knew!”
preliminary findings from the study1
Preliminary Findings from the Study
  • Transfer to other content areas (e.g., history teacher anecdotal evidence)
  • Increased focus on words by students (observed)
    • Less skipping of words
    • Less reliance on context
    • More inquiry: “What does this word mean?”
discussion implications
Discussion & Implications
  • Bilingual students as language experts—viewing themselves as competent learners
  • CSI approach honors language and culture of students
  • A note about so-called “false cognates”
  • Teacher concerns about strengthening and extending CSI for more transfer, application, and independence
  • CSI and transfer to the “real world”
implications for ccss
Implications for CCSS
  • In the next phase of the study we will be extending CSI to other middle school science teachers who will be monolingual-English speakers
  • Assuming that our findings remain positive for CSI (Lubliner & Grisham, 2012; Moran, 2011), we would like to begin CSI at the end of third grade for Spanish-speaking ELLs
  • We hope to see the strategy become automatic as children use it more than one academic year
the academic word list
The Academic Word List
  • Academic Word List (Averil Coxhead) see at http://language.massey.ac.nz/staff/awl/
  • Up to 70% of academic words may be Spanish/English cognates
  • Translate at BabelFish:

http://babelfish.yahoo.com/?fr=avbbf-xxen

most frequent academic words
analysis

approach

area

assessment

assume

authority

available

benefit

concept

consistent

constitutional

context

contract

create

data

definition

derived

distribution

economic

environment

Most Frequent Academic Words
most frequent academic words1
established

estimate

evidence

export

factors

financial

formula

function

identified

income

indicate

individual

interpretation

involved

issues

labour

legal

legislation

major

method

Most Frequent Academic Words
most frequent academic words2
occur

percent

period

policy

principle

procedure

process

required

research

response

role

section

sector

significant

similar

source

specific

structure

theory

variables

Most Frequent Academic Words
examples of cognates
Examples of Cognates
  • Analysis (Análisis)
  • Authority (Autoridad)
  • Concept (Concepto)
  • Data (Datos)
  • Economic (Económico)
example of sixth grade science text with find the cognates
Example of Sixth Grade Science Text with Find the Cognates

Types of stress

Three different kinds of stress can occur in the crust - tension, compression, and shearing. Tension, compression, and shearing work over millions of years to change the shape and volume of rock. Stress causes some rocks to become brittle and snap. Otherrocks bend slowly, like road tar softened by the sun. Figure 2 shows how stressaffects the crust. Most changes in the crust occur so slowly that they cannot be observeddirectly. But if you could speed up time so a billion years passed by in minutes, you would see the crust bend, stretch, break, tilt, fold, and slide. The slow shift of earth's plates causes these changes.

Tension: The type of stress called tension pulls on the crust stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle. The effect of tension on rock is somewhat like pulling apart a piece of warm bubble gum. Tensionoccurs where two plates are movingapart.

Compression: A type of stress called compression squeezes rock until it folds or breaks. One plate pushing against another can compressrock like a giant trash compactor.

Shearing: Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called shearing. Shearing can cause rock to break and slip apart or to change shape.

contact
Contact
  • Dana L. Grisham, National University

dana.grisham@gmail.com