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100 Facts You Need to Know About Virginia’s Version of United States History, 1865 - Present. A Study Guide for the Virginia Standards of Learning Test - US History from 1865 to the Present. 1. The Reconstruction Amendments.
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A Study Guide for the Virginia Standards of Learning Test - US History from 1865 to the Present.
The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were passed to give African Americans liberty and equal rights under the law.
The 13th Amendment freed all enslaved people and ended slavery in the United States.
The 14th Amendment provided “equal protection under the law” and gave formerly enslaved people citizenship rights.
The 15th Amendment allowed African-American men the right to vote.
The Compromise of 1877 brought the Reconstruction to an end in the American South. In exchange for the Presidency, Rutherford B. Hayes agreed to remove most Union soldiers from the South and allow state governments to reinstate discriminatory and racist laws without interference from the Federal Government.
Black Codes and “Jim Crow” laws allowed discrimination to continue in most Southern States for the next 100 years.
In the Supreme Court case of Plessy V. Ferguson, the ruling stated that segregation was legal, as a long as the institutions created were “separate but equal.”
4. The Supreme Court Case of Plessy V. Ferguson
Since the Great Plains was an environment with low rain fall, it was one of the last parts of the country settlers moved onto. When they began settling the area in the late 1800s, many lived in sod houses and most used “dry farming” techniques.
Major cities grew due to:
The “Wizard of Menlo Park” invented:
The Electric Light Bulb
The Battery Cell
The Motion Picture Machine
He was the inventor of the telephone and the first ever telephone company: Bell Telephone and Telegraph.
Jane Addams was the founder of Hull House in Chicago and a leader of the settlement house movement. Settlement houses helped out poor immigrants and working families in major cities during the late 1800s.
In order to enforce the reservation policy the US Army was frequently in conflict with Native American tribes:
The US Army’s Seventh (7th) Cavalry Division was massacred at Little Bighorn in 1876 – Custer’s Last Stand. (This was a rare victory for Native American tribes.)
The Nez Perce Tribe was tracked down, militarily defeated, and forced to accept life on the reservation. Their chief, Chief Joseph, stated, “I will fight no more forever.”
Heavy Discrimination existed against Chinese migrants in the West (the same laborers who had practically built the Transcontinental Railroad from Sacramento to Promontory Point, UT.) The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 forbid Chinese immigration.
13. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Political Machines, run by political bosses, bought the votes of poor immigrants in the slums of major cities by doing them favors. They were usually very corrupt, accepting kickbacks and bribes at the local government level.
John D. Rockefeller was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, who dominated the oil industry during the late 19th Century. He used unfair business practices – violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act – to take control of the industry.
Andrew Carnegie controlled the steel industry in the United States during the 19th Century. His Homestead Plant provided the steel for railroads, skyscrapers, and even the Brooklyn Bridge.
Henry Ford Used the assembly line to mass produce the Model-T Ford and became the leader of the automobile industry in the process. His famous “Tin Lizzy” – the Model-T – came in “any color you like, as long as it is black!”
Booker T. Washington was the founder of the Tuskegee Institute in order to teach job skills to African-Americans. He believed that gradually, through education and the learning of vocations, African-Americans would achieve equality.
W. E.B. DuBois demanded immediate political, civil, social, and economic equality for African Americans. He was the author of The Souls of Black Folk and the founder of the very important civil rights organization the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP.)
The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to demand:
Many of the goals of the labor unions were achieved with cooperation from Progressive reformers.
The symbol of the AFL includes an expression of one of its goals, the 8-Hour workday. Can you see it?
Workers at Andrew Carnegie’s Homestead Plant went on strike to protest a slash in their wages in 1892. The violence which broke out ruined Carnegie’s reputation, and resulted in little gain for workers.
22. The Homestead Plant Strike
The woman’s suffrage movement, led by Susan B. Anthony, won the right to vote, greater educational opportunities, more political participation, and more social equality and freedom for women.
The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution gave women the right to vote in national elections.
Leaders of the temperance movement succeeded in banning alcohol in the United States by passing the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. (It was later repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933 – it was ineffective due to organized crime and the refusal of many Americans to follow the law.
Yellow Journalism, and especially the sensational stories about Spanish atrocities in Cuba during the late 1890s, was a major cause of the Spanish-American War in 1898.
The explosion of the USS Maine was blamed on Spanish enemies – despite no evidence to prove such a charge – by yellow journalists’ articles. The explosion of the Maine was a major cause of the Spanish American War, as well, and the battle cry of Americans during the war was “Remember the Maine!”
“He Kept US Out of War.”
1916 Campaign Slogan of Woodrow Wilson.
31. Germany used U-Boats to engage in unrestricted submarine warfare against American vessels; by sinking the Lusitania, Germans killed over 1000 civilians, including 128 Americans. This was a major cause of the United States entry into World War I.
Our enemies during World War I were the Central Powers nations: