gete tsegaye phd nigatu regassa prof henry carol phd patience idemudia phd n.
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Smallholder farmers Pulse Production and marketing in four Districts of Ethiopia: Examining Access and Control of key Resources from the gender lens. Gete Tsegaye (PhD), Nigatu Regassa (Prof) , Henry Carol (PhD),

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    1. Smallholder farmers Pulse Production and marketing in four Districts of Ethiopia: Examining Access and Control of key Resources from the gender lens. Gete Tsegaye (PhD), Nigatu Regassa (Prof) , Henry Carol (PhD), Patience Idemudia (PhD)

    2. Introduction • Ethiopia is one of the top ten pulse producer countries in the world (FAO;2008). • Pulses occupy approximately 13 % of cultivated land and are critical to small holder farmers in Ethiopia (CSA,2008; IFPRI,2010). • Moreover, pulse is the third largest crop export after coffee and oil seed (CSA;2008) • In general, women are major contributors to the agricultural workforce either as family members or in their own right as heads of family • Despite their greater role in the production of crops women benefit the least (ILRI;2010) which impacts on food security and diet of HHs .

    3. Objectives General Objective • To study Gender role in pulse production , access & control over resources and marketing in four selected districts of Southern & Oromiya Regions of Ethiopia. Specific Objectives • To find out gender role in pulse production and marketing • To examine the level of access & control over key resources in terms of gender • To study the type of farming practices and access to agricultural package • To develop gender analysis framework for intervention on the basis of the findings of the study.

    4. Materials and Methods Description of the study area • The study was conducted in 4 rural districts of Southern and Oromiya Regions of Ethiopia Sampling • Simple random and multistage samplingwas employed to draw 665 households drawn from the study population Instrument • The main quantitative data was generated through household survey questionnaire. In addition, Key informant interview and eight FGDs were conducted.

    5. Materials And Methods Procedure • Data were collected by the help of trained enumerators under close supervision of the researchers . Data Analysis • Descriptive statistics & chi-square test were used to determine associations between key variables.

    6. Results And Discussion

    7. Results And Discussion Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Pulse Production (n=665) close to 70% of the farmers produce haricot bean in the study area Chickpea is also the other important pulse produced (Almost 11%)

    8. Results And Discussion • It was found out that the soil type as well as the weather are suitable to produce both lentil and chickpeas. • Haricot bean is part of the main diet unlike lentil and chick pea ,hence the preference • Conversely ,in one of the study areas eating haricot bean was found to be a taboo. • Among the major problems that inhibit massive production of pulses Small land holding High Cost of fertilizer Lack of Improved seed were reported in all the study areas

    9. Results And Discussion Gender Role in Pulse Production • Women’s participation in production of pulses (sawing, weeding, cultivating, harvesting , threshing and transporting ) pulse is found to be significant . • Nevertheless, women have less power over handling and usage of the income

    10. Results and Discussion……(key Scientific Findings)Decision making in pulse marketing & Related Issues From Gender perspective • Men have better decision making authority compared to women concerning marketing issues. • Further more ,the FGD indicated often times once the produce is ready for market women lose their ownership.

    11. Results And Discussion Access & Control over Key Resources (Livestock ownership) (n=665) • Chi-Square test indicated significant association b/n Household headship & livestock ownership. • Since women own lesser No. of livestock they are not in a position to do effective agricultural work hence, they get little attention in land allocation and agricultural Extension advice • As a result , Women are considered as weak farmers

    12. Results And Discussion…(Key Scientific Findings ) Access & Control over Key Resources (Land ownership) (n=665) • Generally, land ownership is fairly low in the study area • Although ,Household headship has no significant association with land ownership,(F) headed HHs own much lesser land than (M) headed HHs due to number of factors including local & cultural practices

    13. Results And Discussion……(Key Scientific Findings). • Women’s land ownership is highly influenced by the existing culture at least in the study area. • In fact, people traditionally tend to think giving women important resource such as land , is losing ancestral heritage.

    14. Results and Discussion ……(Key Scientific Findings) Household Headship And Type of Agricultural Practices (n=665) • More than 92% of the respondents were engaged in mixed farming and use either full or partial package. • On the other hand, Female Headed HHs have significantly lesser access /utilization of Agricultural Packages

    15. Conclusion • The study revealed that female headed HHs owned significantly lesser livestock and other strategic resources compared to (M) Headed HHs. • Consequently, women benefit less from the increasingly important pulse market in Ethiopia • Moreover, knowledge, access and control gap in pulse production particularly among Female farmers was observed • Among other things the cultural and local practices contributed for women’s limited land ownership ,which also could affect food consumption and nutritional status of their family. • In one of the study areas eating haricot bean was found to be a taboo • Women have less decision making power in marketing issues and utilization of the money generated from pulses

    16. Key Development Outcome & New Contributions • The development of Gender Analysis Framework for pulse production And Diet Enrichment • Consultative Gender workshop was conducted with stakeholders 3. Paper was published In Peer Reviewed Scientific Journal Work has already begun on the study sites focused on : * Helping Extension Agents to better address issues of women Headed HHs & women farmers in Male Headed HHs * fighting the cultural and local practices that prevent women from becoming competent farmers 3. Message to the policy makers women’s policy by itself may not change the deep rooted traditions unless and otherwise supplemented by sensitization & awareness creation that may eventually bring about attitudinal and behavioral changes in the community.

    17. Gender Framework For Pulse production And Dietry Enrichment

    18. Any Contribution or Indication of Impact • It is very early to talk about impacts since the recommendations are still being implemented

    19. Aspects of the project that should be done differently in future • An in-depth study of Socio-Cultural factors that inhibit gender equity and equality which in turn impact on nutrition and food security should be addressed

    20. Acknowledgment Sincere Appreciation to IDRC/CIFSRF Project And the Project Leaders

    21. Thanks !!

    22. Results and Discussion ……(key Scientific Findings) Household Headship And Land Ownership (n= 665) • Chi-Square Test has indicated highly significant association b/n Household headship and wealth hence ,the (F) HHs are poorer than the (M)HHs • The limited finance in the (F) HHs inhibits them from accessing Agricultural inputs and the like.

    23. Results and Discussion ……(key Scientific Findings) Household Headship And Land Ownership (n= 665) • Chi-Square Test has indicated highly significant association b/n Household headship and wealth hence ,the (F) HHs are poorer than the (M)HHs • The limited finance in the (F) HHs inhibits them from accessing Agricultural inputs and the like.

    24. Key development outcome &New ContributionGender Analysis Framework for pulse production And Diet Enrichment by CIRFS Project

    25. Introduction • According to available information Ethiopia’s agriculture sector has witnessed consistent growth since 2003 (IFPRI,2010). • The growth is said to be partly due to establishment of FTC & training of development agents . • Pulses cover 13 % of cultivated land in Ethiopia Hence, the country is among the top 10 pulse producers in the world. • Similarly, Ethiopia is The 2nd largest producer of faba beans after China and the 5th or 6th largest producer of chickpeas (FAO.2008).

    26. Introduction • Pluses are the 3rd largest crop export after coffee & oil seed amounting to 90 Million USD in Ethiopia (CSA,2008). • Pulses are important food items among poor farmers as they are less expensive compared to animal proteins. • In addition pulses improve soil health through nitrogen fixation and reduce fertilizer usage by up to 60% • Moreover, there is a high potential of increasing market for pulses • 92% of pulses are produced in Amhara & Oromiya regions 10% of the faba beans is produced in southern region • .

    27. Introduction General objective • To examine gender roles in pulse production in selected CIRFC project areas of SNNPR & Oromiya regions. • Specific Objectives • To identify the level of access to pulses & non pulse food supply. • To study local farming practices of producing haricot bean . • To explore the diet diversity, local practices in pulse production, processing and consumption. • To examine the influence of selected socio-demographic characteristics in pulse production in the study area.

    28. Specific objectives ctd….. • To asses the gender division of labor in farming practices processing and food preparation. • To examine the key factors influencing female involvement in pulse production . • To develop gender analysis framework for the project intervention on the basis of the findings of the study.

    29. Methodology Description of the Study Area The study was conducted in selected CIRFS project areas in: SNNPR • Boditi/ Damot Gale • Halaba • Hawassa Zuria Districts Oromiya Region • Adamitulu Jido Combolcha District

    30. Methodology Sampling • Sample size was determined by using sample size determining formula. • Multistage sampling technique was used to select the sample i.e • The 4 Districts were purposefully selected • Then the study Kebeles were randomly selected from the total list of kebeles in the districts . • From the lists of HHS in the selected kebeles 150 HHs were selected randomly • Finally , a total sample size of 665 including the additional 10 percent (65 HHs ) was selected.

    31. Methodology Target Group • In the present study 665 farmers participated. Among them 207 were female farmers while 458 were male farmers . Data Collection Techniques 1.Survey Questionnaire • Questionnaire was developed in English and later on it was translated in Amharic . • Pilot-testing & adjustment was done prior to the data collection

    32. Methodology 2.Interview • Key informants interview was conducted with district level Bureau of Agriculture staff & Development Experts. 3 . Focus Group Discussions (FGD) • Two FGDs were conducted in each of the districts with a total of 60 key informants • Among the participants 43 were women while the rest were men • The focus group discussions (FGDs) involved women of different age and marital status groups , religious and community leaders and development agents .

    33. Methodology Data Collection Procedure • Data was collected in 1 month by the help of 40 trained Development agents under close supervision of the researchers. Analysis • The quantitative Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 19. • Descriptive statistics and non parametric tests such as Chi Square test was computed .

    34. Result & Discussion

    35. Result & Discussion • 68% of the female respondents in contrast to 54% of their male counterparts were illiterate In the study area Muslims were majority

    36. Percentage Distribution of Respondents by reported land ownership & Farming Practices Only 3.5% of the respondents were land less the rest own ½ - > 2 hectares. Most of the respondents use either full or partial agricultural Extension package

    37. Percentage distribution of respondents by reported level of crop production More Haricot bean is produced compared to chickpea and lentil . In fact, Lentil is almost not produced in the area Haricot bean is produced more

    38. Continued • Although haricot bean is produced more than lentil & chickpeas the FGDs indicated both lentil and chickpea used to be produced previously. • Moreover, the participants indicated that the soil type as well as the weather are suitable to produce both lentil and chickpeas. • Cost of fertilizer, improved seed and small land holding were reported to be major challenges of pulse production in all the study areas • On the other hand ,agricultural practices used to produce pulses was found to be the same in the study areas. • Among other things, farmers reported pulse production requires tedious preparation of land

    39. Production ;consumption ;sell and purchase of pulses • Haricot bean is the most produced ; consumed sold and purchased pulse in the study areas .

    40. Local practices in pulse processing • Haricot bean is processed for consumption by boiling, preparing sauce, by mixing with vegetables • Chickpea is processed for consumption by boiling, roasting and preparing sauce • Lentil is prepared by making sauce . • According to the FGD women in Hawassa zuria do not know how to prepare lentil . • In fact , when they get lentil from food aid program they prefer to sell it so that they can buy vegetables.

    41. Diet diversity , Pulse Consumption Protein foods such as eggs, fish, meat soybean ,cheese ,lentil etc are rarely consumed or not consumed all together.

    42. Pulse consumption • 75% of the HHs never consumed fish and 76% never consumed soybean • 75% of the respondents reported that haricot bean is more consumed by male HH members. • 62.3% of the Households reported that haricot bean is eaten once in a day in their family. • The FGD participants in Jido Combolcha reported that haricot bean is produced mainly for sale and not consumed due to taboo. • On the other hand, in Halaba area the study discovered new maize -haricot bean mix enjera which was never tried elsewhere in Ethiopia.

    43. Association B/N headship and type of farming and usage of agricultural package Chi-square test has indicated significant association between headship and type of Agricultural package used at .05 significance level .

    44. Association between headship and Tropical Livestock unit (TLU) Chi-square test has indicated significant association between headship and TLU at .05 significance level

    45. Association between headship and wealth index Chi-Square test has indicated significant association between headship and wealth index at .05 significance level

    46. Association between headship and Land ownership • Chi-Square test did not indicate significant association between headship and land ownership at .05 significance level Although, no significant association is observed (F) headed HHs own much lesser land size compared to male headed HHs.

    47. Gender division of Labor in Farming practices

    48. Gender division of Labor in Farming practices

    49. Gender difference in Participation of agricultural practices • women’s responsibility appear to be limited only to grinding and processing (cooking ). In contrast, the FGD indicated women ‘s participation in all agricultural activities