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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Fausto Batini Enel – International Rome – Italy fausto.batini@enel.it Rome, 2006 6th July. Contents. 1° PART introduction Geothermal energy basic concepts Heat sources Geothermal systems The geothermal industry worldwide Electric energy generation

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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Fausto Batini Enel – International Rome – Italy fausto.batini@enel.it


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    1. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Fausto Batini Enel – International Rome – Italy fausto.batini@enel.it Rome, 2006 6th July

    2. Contents • 1° PART • introduction • Geothermal energy basic concepts • Heat sources • Geothermal systems • The geothermal industry worldwide • Electric energy generation • Direct use application • 2° PART • Resource assessment and development • Ranking of geothermal prospects • Project development • Operation and maintanamce • Drivers & barriers for the geothermal energy growth • Technological challenges • Economic and environmental sustainability • Conclusions

    3. Geothermal systems

    4. Geothermal project revenues scheme Electric power generation By-products (heat, water, chemicals) Heat supply Process water & chemical products CDM Project can generate revenues through sale of electric energy, water, chemicals and CDM

    5. Resource capacity Technology to apply (Temperature) Depth of the reservoir Transmission line & logistics Chemistry of fluid Energy market price Permitting Enviromental Customers Regulatory and political risk Ranking criteria Technical dimension Development/Risk dimension Because these parameters are not certain for most of the projects, they shall be considered as expected parameters.

    6. Resource assessment and development Main phases Regional Reconnaissance (1000's km2) surface prospecting 1-2 years • Exploration • 100's km2 • surface Prospecting • exploratory drilling • 1-2 years • Project Development • 10’s km2 • Project permitting • Drilling of production/reinjection wells • Steam gathering system: • Power Plant Design and • Construction • Transmission line • 2- 3 years Operation & Maintenance 20- 30 years Identification and ranking of the most promising areas for exploration Geothermal resource characterization and economic evaluation

    7. Investment expenditures

    8. Expenditures & risks of a geothermal project

    9. Investment expenditure breakdown

    10. Table 3: Capital cost of geothermal power technologies. O&M costs value and ranges.

    11. Contents • 1° PART • introduction • Geothermal energy basic concepts • Heat sources • Geothermal systems • The geothermal industry worldwide • Electric energy generation • Direct use application • 2° PART • Resource assessment and project development • Ranking of geothermal prospects • Project development • Operation and maintanamce • Drivers & barriers for the geothermal energy growth • Technological challenges • Economic and environmental sustainability • Conclusions

    12. Barriers • Technological challanges – deep exploration • Economic - High development cost (logistics, transmission, exploration risk in “green field” project • Regulatory / market / political risks • Environmental - adverse impacts in some areas with local communities Drivers • Great number of areas with an interesting geothermal potential • Electrical energy demand growing within the next years • Base load capacity (>95% availability), renewable and domestic energy • Employment opportunity Drivers & barriers for the geothermal energy growth

    13. Technological challenges Technological challenges • Current efforts are focused on: • Identifying Resources development and opportunities • Resources Assessment • Exploration andDrilling • Optimizing Resource Utilization and Management • Resource Management • Generation Technologies • Investigating Applications that Increase • system reliability • environmental compatibility

    14. Emploiment opportunity DISCIPLINE KNOW HOW DEGREE • structural geology • hydrogeology • petrography • rock mechanics GEOLOGY GEOLOGY • seismology • gravity • electromagnetics • well geophysics GEOPHYSICS ENGINEERING RESERVOIR PHYSICS • thermodynamics • fluidodynamics • numerical modelling PHYSICS DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES • Well design • Drilling operations • Mud & cementing

    15. 8000 8000 $ per KW 6000 6000 4000 4000 2000 2000 0 0 Hydro Hydro Onshore Onshore Offshore Offshore Geothermal Geothermal Bioelectricity Bioelectricity Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Concentrating Concentrating Solar Power Solar Power Small Small Wind Wind Wind Wind Incremental Technology Technology Technologies Technologies Technologies Technologies Comparison of investment expenditures for different renewable energy project

    16. Conclusions Geothermal energy, like other renewable energy sources (RES), plays an important role to: • complement existing energy production systems • tackle climate change • contribute to an overall strategy of sustainable development • reduce dependence on energy imports, thereby ensuring sustainable security of energy supply • have a positive impact on regional development and employment