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CSC 322 Review PowerPoint Presentation
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CSC 322 Review

CSC 322 Review

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CSC 322 Review

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  1. CSC 322 Review A slide to a chapter summary of the material covered (based on the 8/e book)

  2. C1. Data Communications and Networking Overview • The 3 (or 5) entity general communication model • Actual data communications is more complicated • Transmission system utilization, interface, signal generation, synchronization, exchange management, error detection and correction, flow control, addressing, routing, recovery, message formatting, security, network management • Networking • LANs (one organisation, smaller area, faster speeds) • WANs (larger areas, crossing public rights of way, common carrier circuits) • circuit switching, • packet switching • frame relay, cell relay (ATM) • MANs (middle ground)

  3. C2. Protocol Architecture • A simple (quite general) protocol architecture • Protocols: syntax, timing, semantics • Layering combats complexity • Peer layered architecture • Information flow (down  across  up) • Open System Interconnection (OSI) • 7 layers • Standardisation framework • Service Primitives, and Parameters • The TCP/IP protocol architecture • 5 layers • The “industry/world” standard

  4. C3. Data transmission • Terminology • Frequency, spectrum, bandwidth, effective bandwidth, etc • Any signal can be expressed as an infinite number of sine waves (frequency components). • Remember it is only the odd ones (f, 3f, 5f, 7f….) • Relationship between data rate and bandwidth • The higher the data rate the higher the required bandwidth • The higher the bandwidth the greater data rate can be achieved • Transmission impairments • attenuation, delay distortion, noise (4 types) • Channel capacity • Nyquist (error & noise free, f(B, channels)) • Shannon (error free, f(B, SNR))

  5. C4. Transmission Media • Guided media • Twisted pair (2 versions), coaxial, optical fibre • Description, characteristics, categories • Wireless transmission technologies • Dish antenna, Antenna gain • Microwave (earth & satellite), broadcast radio, infrared • Wireless propagation • Skywave, line-of-sight, groundwave • Wireless (line-of-sight) impairments • Free space loss, refraction, atmospheric absorption, mutlipath

  6. C5. Signal Encoding Techniques • Digital(=D) & Analogue(=A) Data • to Digital & Analogue Signals • D-data  A-signal • Frequency/Phase/Amplitude shift keying • D-data  D-signal • NRZ, Multilevel, Biphase • Scrambling • A-data  D-signal • Delta, Pulse code • A-data  A-signal(3) • AM, FM

  7. C6. Digital Data Communication Techniques • Transmission approaches • Synchronous • Asynchronous • Errors, types • Single bit, Burst errors • Error detection • Check bits • Error correction • FEC, Redudancy, hamming distance

  8. C7. Data Link Control Protocols • Flow control (S&W, SW) • Error control • 4 Mechanisms of ARQ • 3 version of ARQ • HDLC protocol • Basics • types of stations (3) • Configuration (2) • modes (3) • Frame types and structure (I / S / U) • Operation (3 phase type)

  9. C8. Multiplexing • Utilising a single line to relay multiple connections • Frequency Division MUXing • Time Division MUXing • MUXed line has at least the data rate of the sum of lines • Slots are fixed and allocated • Statistical Time Division (relies on non frequent use) • Slots are allocated on demand • MUXed line has less than the sum of lines being MUXed • ADSL • Separates the 1MHz in 3 regions (POTS, Upstream, Downstream) • FDM within upload and download

  10. C14. Cellular Wireless Networks • Not covered fully (first 14 slides) • Cellular network organisation • Cells • Frequency reuse • Increasing the capacity • Operation of a cellular systems • Base station • Cells • MTSO

  11. C17. Wireless Networks • Single and multi cell LANs • Applications (nomadic, adhoc, cross building, lan extension) • Technologies (just the names) • IR, Spread spectrum, Narrow band microwave

  12. C15. LAN Overview • LAN applications (high speed, backbone, storage area networks, personal, backend) • Topologies (ring, star, bus, tree) • IEEE 802 reference model • LLC and MAC • Medium Acces Control • Central vs distributed • Synchronous vs asynchronous • Asynhronous • Round robin, reservation, contention • Bridges, Switches, Hub, Layer 2 & 3 (hardware switches)