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Efficient 21st century digital Library Research Within the University of Pittsburgh Using the Pitt Digital Libraries, EndNote, & Science Citation Index. Walter Schneider. Reference Pitt Digital Reference Retrieval Endnote Reference Managing

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walter schneider

Efficient 21st century digital Library ResearchWithin the University of PittsburghUsing the Pitt Digital Libraries, EndNote, & Science Citation Index

Walter Schneider

  • Reference Pitt Digital Reference Retrieval
  • Endnote Reference Managing
  • Adding Citations to Manuscript From EndNote in Word
  • Science Citation Search and importing SCI date to EndNote
  • Importing EndNote Libraries
  • Summary Comments

Note: these materials are specific to operation at the University of Pittsburgh.

using the current scientific literature major source of current knowledge
Using the Current Scientific Literature Major Source of current knowledge
  • What are the benefits and problems with
    • Google (Google & Google Scholar)
    • Wikipedia
    • Library books
    • Text books
    • Scientific literature
  • What does it mean to be “peer reviewed”
    • Typically 3 experts decide if methods appropriate and results substantial and meaningful
    • Contrast other sources
literature search process
Literature Search Process
  • Challenge
    • Searching through 10,000+ references to find the ten critical ones
  • Note that scientific literature is vast

Example Psych Info Search:

    • 77,814 Attention
    • 41,926 and PY>1990 (pub year)
    • 276 and fMRI or (functional MRI) or

(functional magnetic resonance imaging)

    • 23 and ACC or (Anterior cingulate)
be realistic about your search effort
Be Realistic About Your Search Effort
  • Learn to use key tools
    • web catalogue of reviewed scientific literature (e.g. Science Citation Index)
    • Digital Library
    • Reference manager software (Endnote)
  • Set up a system that you can keep up
  • Be strategic about filtering references
  • Remember you need to read materials not just copy them
  • You need to code information to remember it
    • Summaries of the material in your words
modern tools help
Modern Tools Help
  • Outstanding search tools
  • Programs to manage references
  • Automatic embedding of references
  • Easy access to digital versions of papers
  • Don’t forget the pre-digital era (pre 1990).
search is a professional career process
Search is a professional career process
  • Must cite and use literature
  • Need to become world expert on specialized topic
  • Must maintain information throughout career
search is an iterative process
Search is an Iterative Process

Literature Search

Select Topic

Of Interest

Consult General


(Books, review articles, faculty)

Formal Vocabulary, Main Results

Consult Abstract Index,

Academic Indexes,

Search Engines (Psych Info)

Pool Of Specific References

Use Reference manager program Organize and note pdf

Skim/read references

Determine which are relevant and

what references are often referenced

Other References of Citing authors

Pool of useful references

Reference to Cited authors

Check Science

Citation Index

Read carefully for

Research information,

Code for retrieval

selecting the data base
Selecting the Data Base

Click – rather than checking

select search use of and or not
Select Search Use of AND OR NOT
  • Note can make a complex search expression
    • use (), and, or, not
    • use “.” to limit search to specific field
    • use near for terms that must be near each other
    • (fmri or "functional MRI" or "functional magnetic resonance imaging").ab
exporting record for import endnote
Exporting Record for Import EndNote
  • I recommend AGAINST looking at references in Data Base because I can not annotate the search that way
  • Recommend output from Data Base to reference management program
example full reference
Example Full Reference





Web Link

getting all reference from author
Getting All Reference From Author

Use author (AU) and in (institution) and you get few misses and false alarms. Note: you can build an Endnote database well this way.

review part 1 reference pitt webspirs reference retrieval
Review Part 1: Reference Pitt WebSPIRS Reference Retrieval
  • You can use library services to search for articles
  • Use complex search functions to make the search more targeted
  • You can save PDFs at this time
    • Make sure you rename files in useful form
  • You can save search history for import to reference management software
  • Recommend rapid export to reference management software
part 2 reference managing endnote reference manager

Part 2: Reference Managing (EndNote, Reference Manager)

EndNote version 10 bibliographic software is available to University students at a cost of $5.00.

Students can pick up copies of EndNote at Software Licensing Services, 105 Bellefield Hall between 8:30 AM and 5:00 PM, Monday through Friday. Students must present a valid student ID. Cash, personal check, MasterCard and Visa are accepted for payment.

Download a free trial online.

creating an inputwork file
Creating an InputWork File
  • It is a good practice to do your initial importing and processing in a work file and after all you changes for the session are done import to the final file.
  • Recommended .enl files:
    • InputWork – work for that days session
    • ProjectFile – reference search for a particularly project potentially over months.
    • PersonalCumulative - reference history merging of project files on some basis
read abstracts and highlight
Read Abstracts and Highlight
  • In EndNote you can use bolding (Ctrl-B) to highlight phrases in the abstract.
  • This allows a quick method of identifying the major points for later reference.
  • The highlighting is saved in the EndNote file speeding later review.
get full text via endnote
Get Full Text Via EndNote
  • Double Click reference
  • Scroll to URL field
  • Click on Science Direct Link
get full text via endnote1
Get Full Text Via EndNote
  • Double Click reference
  • Scroll to URL field
  • Click on Science Direct Link
  • Click on reference retrieval
  • Get PDF reference
  • Save/Rename PDF file
label search
Label Search
  • It is important to label the references as you import them.
    • Suggested labels
      • Search date and project – identifies context in which found
      • Relevant/IGNORE – allows selection of items
        • Note importing references to ignore enables using the discard duplicates options to quickly filter out references from future searches.
    • Priority of the reference to the nature of your search
    • Keywords that you might later use to retrieve the reference
label search for search project
Label Search For Search Project
  • Take all inserted references and label them
    • Use the Change and Move Fields option to update all the selected references
    • Pick a field to store search selection options (e.g., Custom 1) and put in search identification.
set references to ignore based on checking title and abstract
Set References To IGNOREBased on Checking Title and Abstract
  • Goal remove from view references that are not of interest. Note there are 2 ways to do this
    • Delete references – This removes references reducing the library size but if import reference from other searches they may be deleted many times
    • Label as IGNORE or Relevant allowing later searchers to discard duplicate IGNORES or Relevants
  • Look at the reference titles and abstracts and select items for action
  • Click to select items to be hidden
  • Use the references to hide the selected items (do this or often such as each page).
label unselected references ignore
Label Unselected References IGNORE

Select Not Relevant

Change Field Custom 1 to IGNORE

sorting references for review
Sorting References for Review
  • Sort by:
    • Author
    • Priority
    • Journal
complex search
Complex Search
  • EndNote does NOT support parenthetical complex Boolean search terms. They can be created by use of multiple searches of the showing references
  • Example search:

(DLPFC or (frontal cortex)) and attention

search data base DLPFC or frontal cortex

search showing references attention

outputting high priority references
Outputting High Priority References
  • Search Label > 5
  • Export to spreadsheet, html, or document
setting and using keywords
Setting and Using Keywords
  • Select the keywords
  • Add words to terms list
  • Use terms/check red for allowed term
importing from working enl
Importing From Working .enl
  • Working on a working bibliography
  • Mark the bibliography
  • Import using EndNote import, remove duplicates
review part 2 reference managing
ReviewPart 2: Reference Managing
  • Remember you are building references for the extensive library research
  • Get some reference management software (e.g. Endnote for $5).
  • Set up reference to import WebSPIRS Files
  • Work on “working library”, not “full library”
  • Label records as to the search
  • Highlight abstract/add keywords & notes
  • Save PDFs as needed if want to check
part 3 adding citations to manuscripts from endnote in word

Part 3: Adding Citations to Manuscripts From EndNote in Word

Note: this assumes EndNote was installed on the machine and added the EndNote menu options to Word.

resulting reference citation
Resulting Reference Citation

After second reference is Inserted.

Note: you can copy the references to the proper place in the manuscript.

review part 3 adding citations to manuscripts
Review Part 3: Adding Citations to Manuscripts
  • Use Endnote to find and insert references
  • Try not to type references but rather import them as much as possible
  • Do NOT alter citation fields on references
  • Select reference type.
part 4 science citation search

Part 4: Science Citation Search

Note: the works from computers on the network

identify cited reference
Identify Cited Reference

Note: potential of miss typed references

export citations to endnote
Export Citations to EndNote

Note: You can only export 500 records at a time.

save as enl file
Save As .enl File
  • Append file to EndNote Library:
    • Note pre-generate in EndNote a work file this adds the references to an .enl file.
label references as citing target
Label References As Citing Target
  • Label both the type of search and citation
import working references to the main search library
Import Working References to the Main Search Library
  • In EndNote Close the InputWork file with the file menu
  • Open the main Reference file
  • Import the InputWork File
  • Cautions:
    • Make backups (e.g., Search 0.01, 0.02…), semester backups
    • Label each search so it can be identified
    • Import to cumulative directories only after search complete
review part 4 science citation search
Review Part 4: Science Citation Search
  • Do search on key references
  • Use EndNote to remove duplicates
  • Label the search source
  • Make notes on references as to priority, edit keywords and notes
  • Get PDFs as needed
  • Rename PDF files to make meaningful
  • Back up pfd and library files and merge into cumulative reference system
part 5 additional miscellaneous items

Part 5: Additional Miscellaneous Items

Using reference journal scanning services

Annotation of PDF files

Adding figures to EndNote

Getting PDFs from Science Citation Index references

Making Directory Backups

Web links

automatic journal scanning services
Automatic Journal Scanning Services
  • Use Science Alerts to scan articles:
    • Search alerts search abstracts/title keywords for match
    • Volume/Issue alerts send table of contents
    • Citation alerts - papers citing a paper
  • Sign on to scanning services (no cost) via pitt digital library services Link to find the journals and sign on aggregator services through Pitt E-Journals
setting up an alert
Setting Up an Alert
  • Do searches to set up search masks:
    • Set the alert search terms
    • Save the Search Alert
    • Name Alert
example alert
Example Alert
  • Get periodic email
    • Click on link to sign on
    • Get list of alerts, click on alert get PDF
setting up volume alerts
Setting Up Volume Alerts
  • Sign up for volume alert
    • Select journals
    • Set Alerts to send table of contents
getting volume alerts
Getting Volume Alerts
  • Sign up for volume alert
    • Select journals
    • Get Alerts with table of contents and abstracts
use the paid adobe acrobat
Use the Paid Adobe Acrobat
  • You can use Acrobat to make digital notes on your document.
    • Highlighting, underlining, strike out
    • Notes, boxes, lines, circles
    • Stamps for specific functions
  • Remember to save the file after editing
adding a figure to endnote record
Adding a Figure to EndNote Record
  • EndNote allows adding a figure to a paper. Note this increases the size of the file considerably. Unfortunately only one figure per reference (in version 6).
  • Select image (e.g., in Acrobat)
  • Select Reference type that displays image (e.g., figure)
  • Either paste image into image field or use Reference/Insert Image Menu option
getting pdf from sci in endnote
Getting PDF from SCI in Endnote

Note: need to be on Pitt Network

directory backup options
Directory Backup Options
  • Make a directory tree that is comprehensive and easy to backup
    • Suggestion on My Documents or on a server (that it is backed up)
      • Literature Search
        • Work (temporary work areas)
        • Archives
          • Cumulative Reference File
          • Project Files
  • Make sure your reference system is backed up and periodically stored off site. Keep several versions (e.g., monthly backups, until semester) Semester backups, 3 years of back ups
importing other reference libraries
Importing Other Reference Libraries
  • When you import references from other sources (e.g., a review that a colleague has done)
    • Identify the source and year for later work
    • Decide what to do about duplicates (either discard or put in duplicates folder)
organize paper libraries
Organize Paper Libraries
  • If you are printing/copying papers come up with a scheme to store them.
    • Project files first author/date
      • Migrate files to full file after project no longer active
    • Full Alphabetical – first author/date
weblinks of interest
WebLinks of Interest
  • This talk: - for details see Powerpoint slides:
  • University of Pittsburgh WebSPIRS
  • Science Citation Index
  • Endnote
  • University of Pittsburgh Software Distribution
  • Library coordinator Marian Hampton 4-7770
  • Use Pitt WebSPIRS to get references from databases
  • Download records into Endnote into Working Library
  • Label Records for search and as Relevant or IGNORE
  • Examine/Save pdf full text versions
  • Do Citation searches and add to references
  • Insert references into documents
  • Move working libraries into project and cumulative reference libraries
h1 library homework assignment
H1 – Library Homework Assignment
  • Assignment: H1 – Library Homework Assignment
  • In the homework you will use Science Citation Index and Endnote to find citations of a paper, all the papers by the author, create an Endnote library, and an ABA style library. Due midnight 9/12/07 (points off for being late) sent to
  • It is strongly recommended that students get a copy of EndNote (version 10) EndNote version 10 bibliographic software is available to University students at a cost of $5.00.Students can pick up copies of EndNote at Software Licensing Services, 105 Bellefield Hall between 8:30 AM and 5:00 PM, Monday through Friday. Students must present a valid student ID. Cash, personal check, MasterCard and Visa are accepted for payment. In addition students will download software from the web during the course. Do screen grabs to insert information (e.g., Alt-Print Screen Windows or Grab utility on the MAC).
  • Template:

Name: ?? Email:??

Assignment: H1 – Library Homework Assignment

  • Identify reference published between 1991-2004 (note I used Mishkin as a sample)
  • Find reference in Science Citation Index report number of citations, copy line from text
  • Report if other papers appear by the author in similar time period get title of reference and indicate relevance
  • Retrieve references of cited paper and top of page of cited reference
  • State name of cited file you would save the pdf of
  • Get all the papers by the author from SCI Output of number of references and most recent
  • Export references to EndNote show end note list (make sure get abstract and URL link. Show screen grab of the listing sorted by date
  • Read and highlight the abstracts of the 5 most recent papers rate them for similarity to the starting paper on a 3 point scale 1-not relevant, 2- somewhat relevant, 3 right on the same content, ener the priority in the label field, and show the list in priority ranked order.
  • Create a short bibliography in APA style of the three most recent papers using Endnote (Be careful to remove the field codes in endnote from the document )