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Stellar Evolution Review. 12-1. Protostars are not seen in visible light telescopes because: . a) they don’t emit any radiation b) they are surrounded by clouds of gas and dust c) they only emit infrared radiation

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12 1 protostars are not seen in visible light telescopes because
12-1. Protostars are not seen in visible light telescopes because:
  • a) they don’t emit any radiation
  • b) they are surrounded by clouds of gas and dust
  • c) they only emit infrared radiation
  • d) they are all moving away from Earth so fast that their visible light is Doppler shifted into the infrared
12 1 protostars are not seen in visible light telescopes because3
12-1. Protostars are not seen in visible light telescopes because:
  • a) they don’t emit any radiation
  • b) they are surrounded by clouds of gas and dust
  • c) they only emit infrared radiation
  • d) they are all moving away from Earth so fast that their visible light is Doppler shifted into the infrared
12 2 a brown dwarf is best described as
12-2. A brown dwarf is best described as:
  • a) a low mass object that doesn’t fuse in its core
  • b) a low mass main sequence star
  • c) a high mass main sequence star
12 2 a brown dwarf is best described as5
12-2. A brown dwarf is best described as:
  • a) a low mass object that doesn’t fuse in its core
  • b) a low mass main sequence star
  • c) a high mass main sequence star
12 3 why are a type main sequence stars hotter than g type main sequence stars
12-3. Why are A-type main sequence stars hotter than G-type main sequence stars?
  • a) A-type stars have cores of metal, whereas G-type stars do not
  • b) A-type stars have more fusion on their surface than G-type stars
  • c) A-type stars have more fusion in their cores than G-type stars
  • d) A-type stars fuse in their cores and near their surfaces, while G-type stars only fuse in their cores.
12 3 why are a type main sequence stars hotter than g type main sequence stars7
12-3. Why are A-type main sequence stars hotter than G-type main sequence stars?
  • a) A-type stars have cores of metal, whereas G-type stars do not
  • b) A-type stars have more fusion on their surface than G-type stars
  • c) A-type stars have more fusion in their cores than G-type stars
  • d) A-type stars fuse in their cores and near their surfaces, while G-type stars only fuse in their cores.
12 4 where on the h r diagram are the majority of stars located
12-4. Where on the H-R diagram are the majority of stars located?
  • a) as white dwarves
  • b) on the main sequence
  • c) as giants
  • d) as supergiants
12 4 where on the h r diagram are the majority of stars located9
12-4. Where on the H-R diagram are the majority of stars located?
  • a) as white dwarves
  • b) on the main sequence
  • c) as giants
  • d) as supergiants
12 5 which type of star is forming iron in its core
12-5. Which type of star is forming iron in its core?
  • a) supergiant
  • b) giant
  • c) main sequence
  • d) white dwarf
12 5 which type of star is forming iron in its core11
12-5. Which type of star is forming iron in its core?
  • a) supergiant
  • b) giant
  • c) main sequence
  • d) white dwarf
12 6 the orion nebula is
12-6. The Orion nebula is
  • a) a reflection nebula illuminated by newly formed stars.
  • b) an emission nebula heated by newly formed stars.
  • c) a supernova remnant.
  • d) a dark nebula.
12 6 the orion nebula is13
12-6. The Orion nebula is
  • a) a reflection nebula illuminated by newly formed stars.
  • b) an emission nebula heated by newly formed stars.
  • c) a supernova remnant.
  • d) a dark nebula.
12 7 what happens when a protostar joins the main sequence
12-7. What happens when a protostar joins the main sequence?
  • a) Its surface area increases significantly.
  • b) Its luminosity increases significantly.
  • c) Nuclear fusion begins in its core.
  • d) Nuclear fission begins in its core.
12 7 what happens when a protostar joins the main sequence15
12-7. What happens when a protostar joins the main sequence?
  • a) Its surface area increases significantly.
  • b) Its luminosity increases significantly.
  • c) Nuclear fusion begins in its core.
  • d) Nuclear fission begins in its core.
slide16
12-8. An object is found that emits most of its electromagnetic radiation in the infrared. This object could be a
  • a) protostar.
  • b) G-type star.
  • c) B-type star.
  • d) cool gas cloud.
slide17
12-8. An object is found that emits most of its electromagnetic radiation in the infrared. This object could be a
  • a) protostar.
  • b) G-type star.
  • c) B-type star.
  • d) cool gas cloud.
12 9 we see an emission nebula via
12-9. We see an emission nebula via
  • a) reflected blue light from a nearby star.
  • b) blue light emitted by hot (excited) hydrogen atoms.
  • c) red light emitted by hot (excited) hydrogen atoms.
  • d) reflected red light from a nearby star.
12 9 we see an emission nebula via19
12-9. We see an emission nebula via
  • a) reflected blue light from a nearby star.
  • b) blue light emitted by hot (excited) hydrogen atoms.
  • c) red light emitted by hot (excited) hydrogen atoms.
  • d) reflected red light from a nearby star.
slide20
12-10. Which of the following are thought to be mechanisms that cause a giant molecular cloud to collapse and form a protostar?
  • a) The shockwave from a nearby supernova
  • b) The shockwave from a newly formed high-mass star that is nearby
  • c) The shockwave experienced by the cloud as it passes through a spiral arm
  • d) All of the above
slide21
12-10. Which of the following are thought to be mechanisms that cause a giant molecular cloud to collapse and form a protostar?
  • a) The shockwave from a nearby supernova
  • b) The shockwave from a newly formed high-mass star that is nearby
  • c) The shockwave experienced by the cloud as it passes through a spiral arm
  • d) All of the above
slide22
12-12. Red giants burn helium via nuclear fusion in their core. The ash (end product) of this nuclear fusion is
  • a) iron.
  • b) hydrogen.
  • c) lithium and carbon.
  • d) carbon and oxygen.
slide23
12-12. Red giants burn helium via nuclear fusion in their core. The ash (end product) of this nuclear fusion is
  • a) iron.
  • b) hydrogen.
  • c) lithium and carbon.
  • d) carbon and oxygen.
12 14 which stars on this h r diagram are on the main sequence
12-14. Which stars on this H-R diagram are on the main sequence?
  • a) Vega, Sirius A, & Mira
  • b) Stars at letters A & B & Barnard’s Star
  • c) Sirius A & Sirius B
  • d) Rigel & Deneb
  • e) Pollux & Barnard’s Star
12 14 which stars on this h r diagram are on the main sequence27
12-14. Which stars on this H-R diagram are on the main sequence?
  • a) Vega, Sirius A, & Mira
  • b) Stars at letters A & B & Barnard’s Star
  • c) Sirius A & Sirius B
  • d) Rigel & Deneb
  • e) Pollux & Barnard’s Star
13 1 a nova is believed to occur when which of the following pairs of stars are in a binary system
13-1. A nova is believed to occur when which of the following pairs of stars are in a binary system?
  • a) white dwarf, main sequence star
  • b) white dwarf, neutron star
  • c) neutron star, red giant
  • d) a pair of supergiants
13 1 a nova is believed to occur when which of the following pairs of stars are in a binary system29
13-1. A nova is believed to occur when which of the following pairs of stars are in a binary system?
  • a) white dwarf, main sequence star(when the main sequence star expands as it ages…)
  • b) white dwarf, neutron star
  • c) neutron star, red giant
  • d) a pair of supergiants
13 2 what is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars
13-2. What is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars?
  • a) helium
  • b) lead
  • c) iron
  • d) carbon
13 2 what is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars31
13-2. What is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars?
  • a) helium
  • b) lead
  • c) iron
  • d) carbon
13 3 which type of star is not fusing anything in its core
13-3. Which type of star is not fusing anything in its core?
  • a) main sequence
  • b) giant
  • c) supergiant
  • d) neutron star
13 3 which type of star is not fusing anything in its core33
13-3. Which type of star is not fusing anything in its core?
  • a) main sequence
  • b) giant
  • c) supergiant
  • d) neutron star
13 4 a pulsar is best described as a
13-4. A pulsar is best described as a:
  • a) a rapidly rotating white dwarf
  • b) a rapidly rotating neutron star
  • c) an expanding and contracting white dwarf
  • d) an expanding and contracting neutron star
13 4 a pulsar is best described as a35
13-4. A pulsar is best described as a:
  • a) a rapidly rotating white dwarf
  • b) a rapidly rotating neutron star
  • c) an expanding and contracting white dwarf
  • d) an expanding and contracting neutron star
13 5 white dwarves are composed primarily of
13-5. White dwarves are composed primarily of:
  • a) helium
  • b) neutrons
  • c) carbon and oxygen
  • d) iron
13 5 white dwarves are composed primarily of37
13-5. White dwarves are composed primarily of:
  • a) helium
  • b) neutrons
  • c) carbon and oxygen
  • d) iron
13 6 the diameter of a white dwarf is closest to which of the following
13-6. The diameter of a white dwarf is closest to which of the following?
  • a) about 1 A.U.
  • b) about the diameter of the Sun
  • c) about the diameter of the Earth
  • d) about 10 kilometers
13 6 the diameter of a white dwarf is closest to which of the following39
13-6. The diameter of a white dwarf is closest to which of the following?
  • a) about 1 A.U.
  • b) about the diameter of the Sun
  • c) about the diameter of the Earth
  • d) about 10 kilometers
13 7 the sun will end its life as a n
13-7. The Sun will end its “life” as a(n):
  • a) supernova.
  • b) nova.
  • c) planetary nebula.
13 7 the sun will end its life as a n41
13-7. The Sun will end its “life” as a(n):
  • a) supernova.
  • b) nova.
  • c) planetary nebula.
13 9 explosions on the surfaces of white dwarves in binary star systems are called
13-9. Explosions on the surfaces of white dwarves in binary star systems are called:
  • a) novas
  • b) supernovas
  • c) flares
  • d) planetary nebulas
13 9 explosions on the surfaces of white dwarves in binary star systems are called43
13-9. Explosions on the surfaces of white dwarves in binary star systems are called:
  • a) novas
  • b) supernovas
  • c) flares
  • d) planetary nebulas
13 10 rotating neutron stars with off axis magnetic fields are called
13-10. Rotating neutron stars with off-axis magnetic fields are called:
  • a) white dwarves
  • b) pulsars
  • c) quasars
  • d) nebulae
13 10 rotating neutron stars with off axis magnetic fields are called45
13-10. Rotating neutron stars with off-axis magnetic fields are called:
  • a) white dwarves
  • b) pulsars
  • c) quasars
  • d) nebulae
13 11 a 15 m main sequence star will eventually shed mass as a
13-11. A 15 M main sequence star will eventually shed mass as a:
  • a) supernova.
  • b) nova.
  • c) planetary nebula.
  • d) Cepheid
13 11 a 15 m main sequence star will eventually shed mass as a47
13-11. A 15 M main sequence star will eventually shed mass as a:
  • a) supernova.
  • b) nova.
  • c) planetary nebula.
  • d) Cepheid
13 12 a one solar mass star will
13-12. A one solar mass star will
  • a) go through a red giant phase and end its life as a white dwarf.
  • b) not go through a red giant phase and end its life as a white dwarf.
  • c) go through a red giant phase and end its life as a black hole.
  • d) not go through a red giant phase and end its life as a black hole.
13 12 a one solar mass star will49
13-12. A one solar mass star will
  • a) go through a red giant phase and end its life as a white dwarf.
  • b) not go through a red giant phase and end its life as a white dwarf.
  • c) go through a red giant phase and end its life as a black hole.
  • d) not go through a red giant phase and end its life as a black hole.
slide50
13-13. White dwarfs usually have surface temperatures well above 10,000 K, yet they have extremely low luminosity. Why is this?
  • a) They are very far away.
  • b) They have a very large surface area.
  • c) They emit most of their radiation in the far infrared.
  • d) They have a very small surface area.
slide51
13-13. White dwarfs usually have surface temperatures well above 10,000 K, yet they have extremely low luminosity. Why is this?
  • a) They are very far away.
  • b) They have a very large surface area.
  • c) They emit most of their radiation in the far infrared.
  • d) They have a very small surface area.
13 15 white dwarfs are not referred to as stars because
13-15. White dwarfs are not referred to as stars because
  • a) they do not produce energy by nuclear fusion.
  • b) they are not luminous enough to qualify as a star.
  • c) we do not know how they produce their energy.
  • d) they do not contain any hydrogen.
13 15 white dwarfs are not referred to as stars because53
13-15. White dwarfs are not referred to as stars because
  • a) they do not produce energy by nuclear fusion.
  • b) they are not luminous enough to qualify as a star.
  • c) we do not know how they produce their energy.
  • d) they do not contain any hydrogen.
13 16 elements heavier than iron are produced by nuclear reactions
13-16. Elements heavier than iron are produced by nuclear reactions
  • a) in a white dwarf.
  • b) during a supernova explosion of a massive star.
  • c) in the shells around the core of a high mass star.
  • d) in the core of a massive star just before it explodes as a supernova.
13 16 elements heavier than iron are produced by nuclear reactions55
13-16. Elements heavier than iron are produced by nuclear reactions
  • a) in a white dwarf.
  • b) during a supernova explosion of a massive star.
  • c) in the shells around the core of a high mass star.
  • d) in the core of a massive star just before it explodes as a supernova.
13 17 a neutron star is
13-17. A neutron star is
  • a) left behind after a Type I supernova explosion.
  • b) created if a star stops burning hydrogen and contracts.
  • c) created if a star stops burning helium and contracts.
  • d) left behind after a Type II supernova explosion.
13 17 a neutron star is57
13-17. A neutron star is
  • a) left behind after a Type I supernova explosion.
  • b) created if a star stops burning hydrogen and contracts.
  • c) created if a star stops burning helium and contracts.
  • d) left behind after a Type II supernova explosion.
13 18 the rotation rate of neutron stars
13-18. The rotation rate of neutron stars
  • a) is constant.
  • b) is slowing down in all cases.
  • c) is slowing down for isolated pulsars, but can be speeding up for pulsars in binary systems if mass transfer occurs.
  • d) is speeding up for all pulsars.
13 18 the rotation rate of neutron stars59
13-18. The rotation rate of neutron stars
  • a) is constant.
  • b) is slowing down in all cases.
  • c) is slowing down for isolated pulsars, but can be speeding up for pulsars in binary systems if mass transfer occurs.
  • d) is speeding up for all pulsars.
13 19 helium fusion takes place in the core of a red giant star these fusion reactions produce
13-19. Helium fusion takes place in the core of a red giant star. These fusion reactions produce
  • a) iron.
  • b) hydrogen.
  • c) lithium and carbon.
  • d) carbon and oxygen.
  • e) beryllium and carbon.
13 19 helium fusion takes place in the core of a red giant star these fusion reactions produce61
13-19. Helium fusion takes place in the core of a red giant star. These fusion reactions produce
  • a) iron.
  • b) hydrogen.
  • c) lithium and carbon.
  • d) carbon and oxygen.
  • e) beryllium and carbon.