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  1. ____ _________

  2. Basic Gill Anatomy Lamella Filament (2 rows) Gill Arch 4/side Gill Raker

  3. Arch Filament Lamellae

  4. Water flow through gills, ventral view Water Bony Fish

  5. What about sharks?

  6. Water flow through gills, ventral view Water Water Bony Fish Shark

  7. What about lampreys?

  8. Lamprey Gills Gill Sack Gill Hole Intestine Mouth Pharynx

  9. Micro Gill Anatomy

  10. Water Flow Gill Anatomy Efferent Artery Afferent Artery Cartilage Rod Lamella Afferent Artery Efferent Artery

  11. Water Flow GillCrossSection Lamella Arch Afferent Artery Filament Cartilage Efferent Artery

  12. Countercurrent Exchange

  13. Parallel vs. Counter-current 20 100 20 40 60 100 0 20 40 80 Counter-current 80 0 0 50 50 46 40 25 0 50 54 60 75 100 Parallel 100 50

  14. Water Flow Gill Anatomy Efferent Artery Afferent Artery Cartilage Rod Lamella Afferent Artery Efferent Artery

  15. Lamella Cross Section Basement Membrane Pillar Cell Red Blood Cell Epithelial Cell Peripheral Channel

  16. Filament Cross Section Efferent Artery Pillar Cell Afferent Artery Central Sinus C E A Cartilage Lamella

  17. Ammonia

  18. Infection

  19. Infection

  20. Iron

  21. Parasites Costia

  22. Parasites “Hamburger gill”

  23. _________

  24. 4 3 Hb Hb Hemoglobin inHigh and Low Oxygen Low Oxygen High Oxygen

  25. Hb Hb

  26. __ _ ___ _____

  27. Niels Bohr1885-1962 Christian Bohr 1855-1911

  28. Bohr Effect H2CO3 Carbonic Acid CO2 + H20 Low CO2 High pH High CO2 Low pH

  29. Bohr Effect H2CO3 Carbonic Acid CO2 + H20 Low CO2 High pH High CO2 Low pH

  30. Hb Bohr Effect O • Tissues have a lower pH than the gills • At lower pH, oxygen does not bind as strongly to Hb (lower affinity) • Therefore, oxygen falls off even faster O O O

  31. 4 2 3 Hb Hb Hemoglobin inHigh and Low Oxygen/pH Low Oxygen & pH High Oxygen & pH

  32. Hb Hb

  33. Oxygen dumped from Hb into tissues because… • Oxygen concentration in tissues is lower so when oxygen falls off Hb it takes a long time to be replaced • The Bohr effect in tissues makes oxygen fall of easier there than it does in the gills • The net effect is that each Hb in the gills is usually bound to 4 oxygen molecules while Hb in the tissues is bound to only 2 • This, 2 oxygen molecules are dropped off by each Hb

  34. Quizzzzz • Basic gill anatomy; label the parts • Pillar cells and thin epithelium are critical! • Countercurrent exchange • How hemoglobin works • Oxygens drop off at low concentration • Bohr