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Trade and Environment at the WTO

Trade and Environment at the WTO

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Trade and Environment at the WTO

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  1. Trade and Environment at the WTO

  2. Table of Concents Brief History of the Trade and Environment Debate Trade and Environment During The GATT 1.The Emergence of theTrade and Environment Debate 2.Developments in Trade and Environmental Fora (1971-1991) 3.Developments within the GATT 4.Developments in Environmental Fora 5.The Activation of the EMIT Group Trade and Environment At The WTO Parameters of The Discussion In The WTO 1.The WTO is not an Environmental Protection Agency 2.GATT/WTO Rules Provide Significant Scope for Environmental Protection 3.Increased Market Access for Developing Countries 4.Trade and Environment Coordination Should be Enhanced

  3. The Doha Mandate on Trade and Environment • Trade and Environment Negotiations • The Work Programme Of The CTE Regular 1.Three Items of Focus 2.Technical Assistance and Environmental Reviews 3.Reporting

  4. Trade and Environment During The GATT

  5. The Emergence of theTrade and Environment Debate The trade and environment debate is not new. The link between trade and environmental protection,consisting of both the impact of environmental policies on trade, aswell as the impact of trade on theenvironment, was recognized as early as 1970. In the early 1970s, there was growing internationalconcern regarding the impact of economic growth on social development and the environment. This led to the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. 关于贸易和环境的讨论由来已久。早在1970年就已认识到贸易和环境的关系,包括环境政策对贸易的影响,以及贸易对环境的影响。在20世纪70年代早期,国际社会越来越重视经济增长带给社会发展和环境的影响。这促使了1972年斯德哥尔摩人类环境会议的召开。

  6. During the preparatory phase to the Stockholm Conference, the Secretariat of the GATT wasrequested to make a contribution. On the Secretariat's own responsibility, a study entitled "IndustrialPollution Control and International Trade" was prepared. It focused on the implications ofenvironmental protection policies on international trade, reflecting the concern of trade officials thatsuch policies could become obstacles to trade, as well as constitute a new form of protectionism. 在斯德哥尔摩会议的筹备阶段,关贸总协定的秘书处被要求贡献自己的一份力量。秘书处自行负责,进行了一项名为“工业污染控制和国际贸易”的研究。该研究主要关注与贸易有关的环境保护政策的涵义(这反映了贸易官员的担心:这些政策可能阻碍贸易发展)以及对新的形式的贸易保护主义的授权。

  7. In 1971, the Director-General of the GATT presented the study to GATT Contracting Parties, urgingthem to examine the potential implications of environmental policies on international trade. Adiscussion of the issues which emerged from the study took place, and a number of Contracting Partiessuggested that a mechanism be created in the GATT for their more thorough examination. 1971年,关贸总协定的总干事把该项研究交给GATT的所有缔约方,督促缔约方对与国际贸易有关的环境政策可能具有的涵义进行审查。针对该研究中所发现问题的讨论已经开始,并且许多缔约方建议为了进行更为彻底的审查,应在GATT内建立一种机制。

  8. A precedentin the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) had already been set in thisregard with the establishment of an Environment Committee which had, in addition to other matters,also taken on board trade and environment issues. 在世界经济合作与发展组织中已经存在这方面的先例,即成立了环境委员会,该环境委员会除处理其他问题外,还将贸易和环境问题纳入考虑范围。 注:take on board:将……纳入考虑范围

  9. Developments in Trade and Environmental Fora (1971-1991) At the November 1971 meeting of the GATT Council ofRepresentatives, it was agreed that a Groupon Environmental Measures and International Trade (also known as the "EMIT Group") be established. Thisgroup would only convene at the request of Contracting Parties, with participation being open to all. 在1971年11月的GATT的代表理事会上,决定成立环境措施和国际贸易小组。该小组仅在缔约方要求时才被召集,并且向所有人开放。

  10. Up until 1991, no request had been put forward for its activation. Between 1971 and 1991,environmental policies began to have an increasing impact ontrade, and with increasing trade flows, theeffect of trade on the environment had also become more evident. 直到1991年,缔约方一直没有提出要求以激活环境措施和国际贸易小组。在1971年到1991年期间,环境政策对贸易的影响逐渐增加,随着贸易的不断发展,贸易对环境的影响也变得更为明显。

  11. Developments within the GATT During the Tokyo Round of trade negotiations (1973-1979), the question of the degree to whichenvironmental measures (in the form of technical regulations and standards) could form obstacles totrade was taken up. The Tokyo Round Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, known as the "Standards Code", was negotiated. Amongst other things, it called for non-discrimination in thepreparation, adoption and application of technical regulations and standards, and for their transparency. 在贸易谈判的东京回合期间,提出了环境措施(表现为技术性规定和标准)能够在多大程度上阻碍贸易这一问题。在东京谈判中,签署了关于技术性贸易壁垒的东京回合协定,即“标准化法典”。关于其他事项,该协定呼吁在准备、接受和适用技术规范和标准方面的无差别以及技术性规定和标准的透明度。

  12. 技术性贸易壁垒协定 《技术性贸易壁垒协定》英文名Agreementon Technical Barriersto Tradeof The World Trade Organization,英文简称WTO/TBT,简称 TBT协议。生效时间1980年1月1日,修改历史: 1979年正式签署了《关贸总协定-贸易技术壁垒 协定》(GATT-TBT),在乌拉圭回合中又于1991年重新修订,1994年于马拉咯什正式签署生效。是世界贸易组织管辖的一项多边贸易协议,是在关贸总协定东京回合同名协议的基础上修改和补充的。

  13. In 1982, a number of developing countries expressed their concern at the fact that productsprohibited in developed countries on the grounds of environmental hazards, or for health or safetyreasons, continued to be exported to them. With limited information on these products, they wereunable to make informed decisions regarding their import. 1982年,许多发展中国家表示了对由于环境危险,或是健康或安全的缘故而被发达国家禁止的产品,却继续向其出口这一事实的担忧。由于对这类产品了解甚微,发展中国家无法做出进口方面的明智的决定。

  14. At the 1982 Ministerial Meeting of GATTContracting Parties, it was decided that the GATT examine the measures needed to bring under controlthe export of products prohibited domestically (on the grounds of harm to human, animal, plant life orhealth, or the environment). In 1989, this resulted in the establishment of a Working Group on the Exportof Domestically Prohibited Goods and Other Hazardous Substances. 在1982年的GATT缔约方部长级会议上,决定由GATT审查为控制本国内部禁止产品的出口而需要采取的措施(由于其对人类、动植物生命或健康,或者对环境具有损害)。这导致了关于国内禁止物品及其他危险物质出口的工作小组于1989年成立。

  15. During the Uruguay Round of negotiations (1986-1993), trade-related environmental issues were onceagain taken up. Modifications were made to the Standards Code, and certain environmental issues wereaddressed in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the Agreements on Agriculture,Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS), Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM), and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) (see page 56). 在乌拉圭回合谈判期间,与贸易有关的环境问题再次被提出。乌拉圭回合谈判中修订了关于技术性贸易壁垒的东京回合协定,并且某些环境问题在《服务贸易总协定》、《农业协定》、《卫生与植物检疫措施协定》、《补贴与反补贴措施协定》以及《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》中得以解决。

  16. In 1991, a dispute between Mexico and the United States regarding a US embargo on the import oftuna from Mexico caught using nets which resulted in the incidental killing of dolphins, heightenedattention on the linkages between environmental protection policies and trade. Mexico claimed that theembargo was inconsistent with GATT rules. The panel ruled in favour of Mexico based on a numberof different arguments (see page 61 for a description of this case). Although the report of the panel wasnot adopted, its ruling was heavily criticised by environmental groups who felt that trade rules were anobstacle to environmental protection. 1991年,美国和墨西哥之间关于美禁止进口墨用渔网捕捞的金枪鱼(原因是用渔网捕捞金枪鱼时常造成海豚的意外死亡)的争端提升了人们对环境保护政策和贸易之间关系的注意。墨宣称该禁运没有遵守GATT规则。基于一些不同的论据,专家组做出了有利于墨的裁决。尽管专家组的报告没有被采用,但是专家组的裁决被环境组织严重批判,他们认为贸易规则是阻碍了环境保护。

  17. 美国限制金枪鱼进口案(简称“美国金枪鱼案”)。用渔网捕捞金枪鱼时,时常造成海豚的意外伤亡。美国《海洋哺乳动物保护法案》为美国国内渔船以及其他国家的渔船制定了海豚保护标准。如果某个向美国出口金枪鱼的国家不能向美国权威机构证明其符合法案所规定的标准,美国必须停止所有来自该国的金枪鱼进口。美国的一个地区法院应环保组织的请求发布禁令,禁止从墨西哥进口金枪鱼,同时也禁止将墨西哥金枪鱼进行中间处理的“中间国”进口金枪鱼至美国。1991年墨西哥向GATT提起申诉,请求裁决上述进口禁令违反了GATT第11条、第13条和第3条。专家组认为,被诉的直接禁令和“中间国”禁令,并不构成GATT第3条意义上的国内法规,其违反了GATT第11条,并且不能依据GATT第20条(d)项、(g)项获得正当性。环保组织对该专家组报告发出了“GATT谋杀海豚”的呐喊,该报告于1991年9月3日公布但最后没有被通过。美国与墨西哥随后进行了双边谈判。美国限制金枪鱼进口案(简称“美国金枪鱼案”)。用渔网捕捞金枪鱼时,时常造成海豚的意外伤亡。美国《海洋哺乳动物保护法案》为美国国内渔船以及其他国家的渔船制定了海豚保护标准。如果某个向美国出口金枪鱼的国家不能向美国权威机构证明其符合法案所规定的标准,美国必须停止所有来自该国的金枪鱼进口。美国的一个地区法院应环保组织的请求发布禁令,禁止从墨西哥进口金枪鱼,同时也禁止将墨西哥金枪鱼进行中间处理的“中间国”进口金枪鱼至美国。1991年墨西哥向GATT提起申诉,请求裁决上述进口禁令违反了GATT第11条、第13条和第3条。专家组认为,被诉的直接禁令和“中间国”禁令,并不构成GATT第3条意义上的国内法规,其违反了GATT第11条,并且不能依据GATT第20条(d)项、(g)项获得正当性。环保组织对该专家组报告发出了“GATT谋杀海豚”的呐喊,该报告于1991年9月3日公布但最后没有被通过。美国与墨西哥随后进行了双边谈判。

  18. Developments in Environmental Fora During this time period, important developments were also taking place in environmental fora.Although the relationship between economic growth, social development and environment wasaddressed at the Stockholm Conference, it continued to be examined throughout the 1970s and 80s. 在这一时期,环境论坛方面取得了重要进展。尽管斯德哥尔摩会议上处理了经济增长、社会发展和环境三者之间的关系,但是整个70、80年代该该三者之间的关系继续受到审视。

  19. In July 1970, an international research team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated astudy of the effects and limits of continued world-wide growth. It argued that even under the most optimistic assumptions about advances in technology, the world could not support present rates ofeconomic and population growth for more than a few decades. However, with more evidence of the contribution of technological advancement to resource savings, and of the role of prices in registeringthe relative scarcity of resources and consumer preferences and in allocating resources efficiently, the"limits to growth" paradigm was quickly overturned. 在1970年7月,马萨诸塞州技术协会的国际研究小组发起了一项关于世界范围内的持续增长的效应和极限的研究。该项研究认为,即使对技术进步作出最乐观的假设,全世界对以当前速度发展的经济和人口增长的支撑也仅是几十年。然而,由于技术进步对于资源节约的贡献方面、价格在表明资源的相对稀缺和消费者的喜好以及有效分配资源方面的作用的证据越来越多,“增长的极限”这一范例很快被推翻。

  20. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development produced a report entitled OurCommon Future (also known as the Brundtland Report), in which the term "sustainable development" wascreated. The report identified poverty as one of the most important causes of environmentaldegradation, and argued that greater economic growth, fuelled in part by increased international trade,could generate the necessary resources to combat what had become known as the "pollution ofpoverty". 1987年,世界环境与发展委员会发表了一篇名为“我们共同的未来”的报告,提出了“可持续发展”这一概念。报告指出贫穷是造成环境恶化的最为重要的原因之一,经济增长越快(其部分原因是不断增加的国际贸易),越可能导致对必要资源的争夺,即众所周知的“贫穷的污染”。

  21. The Activation of the EMIT Group In 1991, members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (at the time, Austria, Finland,Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland) requested the Director- General of GATT toconvene the EMIT group as soon as possible. Its activation was necessary, they stated, in order to createa forum within which trade-related environmental issues could be addressed. Reference was made to theupcoming 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), and to the need forGATT to contribute in this regard. 1991年,欧洲自由贸易联盟(在当时,奥地利、芬兰、冰岛、列支敦士登、挪威、瑞典和瑞士)要求GATT总干事尽快召集环境措施和国际贸易小组。他们认为,为了创建一个能够处理与贸易有关的环境问题的论坛,激活该小组是必要的。并且还提到即将召开的1992年联合国环境与发展大会以及需要GATT在这方面作出贡献。

  22. Given the recent developments within the GATT and within environmental fora, the reactivation ofthe EMIT group met with a positive response. Despite the initial reluctance of developing countries tohave environmental issues discussed in the GATT, they agreed to have a structured debate on the subject. In accordance with its mandate of examining the possible effects of environmental protectionpolicies on the operation of the GATT, the EMIT group focused on the effects of environmentalmeasures (such as eco-labelling schemes) on: 鉴于GATT和环境论坛的最新发展,重新激活EMIT小组得到了积极响应。尽管发展中国家起初并不情愿在GATT内讨论环境问题,但是他们同意针对这一主题进行有组织性的讨论。依照审查环保政策对GATT运行可能造成的影响这一职权,EMIT小组主要关注环境措施对一下内容的影响:

  23. international trade, • the relationship between the rules of the multilateral trading system and the trade provisionscontained in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) (such as the Basel Convention onthe Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal), and • the transparency of national environmental regulations with an impact on trade. • 国际贸易 • 多边贸易体系的规则和包含在多边环境协议(比如巴塞尔条 约)内的贸易条款之间的关系,和 • 影响贸易的国家环境法规的透明度

  24. The activation of the EMIT group was followed by further developments in environmental fora. In1992, the UNCED, also known as the "Earth Summit", drew attention to therole of international tradein poverty alleviation and in combating environmental degradation. Agenda 21, the programme of action adopted at the conference, addressed the importance of promoting sustainable developmentthrough, amongst other means, international trade. The concept of "sustainable development" hadestablished a link between environmental protection and development at large. EMIT小组激活后,环境论坛得到进一步发展。1992年,有“地球峰会”之称的联合国环境与发展大会,使人们的注意力集中于国际贸易在扶贫和遏制环境恶化方面的作用。此次大会上通过的行动计划——21世纪议程,阐述了通过多种方式(包括国际贸易)促进可持续发展的重要性。“可持续发展”的概念建立了环境保护和发展在整体上的联系。

  25. Trade and Environment At The WTO

  26. Towards the end of the Uruguay Round (after the establishment of the EMIT group), attention wasonce again drawn to trade-related environmental issues, and the role of the newly emerging World TradeOrganization (WTO) in the field of trade and environment. In thePreamble to the MarrakeshAgreement Establishing the WTO, reference was made to the importance of working towardssustainable development. 乌拉圭回合谈判(EMIT小组成立之后),注意力再次集中到与贸易有关的环境问题,以及新成立的WTO在贸易、环境领域的作用。在建立WTO的马拉喀什协定的序言中,提到了致力于可持续发展的重要性。

  27. WTO Members recognized that "their relations in the field of trade andeconomic endeavour should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living ... while allowing for the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means fordoing so in a manner consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of economicdevelopment". WTO的成员方认识到“他们在贸易和经济活动领域的关系应该被提高生活水平这一思想所指导…然而考虑到依照可持续发展目标而最充分地的利用世界资源,寻求保护和保育环境以及提升。

  28. In April 1994, a Ministerial Decision on Trade andEnvironment was adopted, calling for the establishmentof a Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE)(See Annex I, page 67). A broad-based mandate wasagreed upon for the CTE, consisting of identifying therelationship between trade measures and environmentalmeasures in order to promote sustainable development,and making appropriate recommendations on whetherany modifications of the provisions of the multilateraltrading system are required. The work programme ofthe CTE is contained in the Decision and covers a broader range of issues than those previously addressedby the EMIT group. 1994年4月,通过了关于贸易和环境的部长级决议,呼吁成立一个贸易和环境委员会。协议同意授予CTE广泛的职权,包括为了促进可持续发展而对贸易措施和环境措施之间的关系进行鉴定,以及对多边贸易体系所要求的规定是否修改作出适当建议。协议中对CTE的工作计划作出了规定,其问题覆盖面比先前EMIT小组所处理的还要广。

  29. The CTE is composed of all WTO Members and a number of observers from inter-governmentalorganizations. It reports to the WTO's General Council. The CTE first convened in early 1995 toexamine the different items of its mandate. In preparation for the Singapore Ministerial Conference, inDecember 1996, the CTE summarized the discussions which it held since its establishment, as well asthe conclusions reached in a report presented at the Conference.Since then, it has met approximatelythree times a year. It has held a number of information sessions with MEA secretariats to deepenMembers' understanding of the relationship between MEAs and WTO rules, and organized a number of public symposia for non-governmental organizations (NGOs). CET由所有的WTO成员方和一些来自政府间组织的观察员组成。它对WTO负有报告义务。1995年前期,第一次召集CTE以审查关于其职权的不同条款。在筹备1996年12月的新加坡部长级会议时,CTE对其成立以来由其主持的讨论以及呈递给大会的报告中所得出的结论进行了总结。从那时起,CTE每年大约召开三次会议。CTE和多边环境协议秘书处举办了一些信息会议,以加深成员方对MEAs和WTO准则之间关系的理解,并且为NGOs组织了大量的公开研讨会。

  30. In November 2001, at the Doha Ministerial Conference, it was agreed to launch negotiations on certainissues related to trade and environment. These negotiations are conducted in a Committee establishedfor this purpose, the Committee on Trade and Environment Special Session (CTESS). The CTEwas also requested to give particular attention to three items of its work programme. In addition, theCTE and the Committee on Trade and Development were asked to act as a forum in which theenvironmental and developmental aspects of the negotiations launched at Doha could be debated (seepage 9 for more detail on the Doha Development Agenda and page 71 for the text of its relevant provisions). 在2001年11月的多哈部长级会议上,同意对与贸易和环境有关的某些固定问题进行谈判。在专为此项目的而成立的贸易和环境特别会议委员会的指导下,进行了这些谈判。同时也要求CTE对其自身工作计划的三个部分给予特别注意。另外,还要求CTE与贸易和发展委员会充当一个论坛,在此论坛内可以讨论多哈会议发起的谈判中的环境和发展问题。

  31. Parameters of The Discussion In The WTO WTO内讨论的限定因素

  32. As previously stated, environmental issues weretaken up in the GATT/ WTO as a result ofnumerous developments at the international levelin trade and environmental fora. Whilstdeveloped countries were subjected to increasedpressure from environmental interest groups toreconcile what they perceived as"incompatibilities" between trade and environmental policies, developing countriesfeared that environmental concerns would beaddressed at the expense of international trade.In particular, they feared that a new "green" conditionality would be attached to market accessopportunities. Within this context, certain parameters have guided trade and environment discussions inthe WTO, including the following: 正如前述,由于环境和贸易论坛内国际层面上的巨大发展,在GATT/WTO内环境问题再次被提出。同时,环境利益集团所施加给发达国家的压力越来越大,要求发达国家协调贸易和环境政策之间其认为不能相容的事项;而发展中国家则担心环境问题的解决将会以国际贸易为代价。尤其是,他们害怕在市场准入条件中将会增加一个新的“绿色”条件。在这一背景下,存在一些限定性因素用来指导WTO内贸易和环境方面的讨论,包括一下方面:

  33. The WTO is not an Environmental Protection Agency In the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement, WTO Members affirm the importance of workingtowards sustainable development. In addition, the Ministerial Decision on Trade and Environment states thatthe aim of the work of the CTE is to make "international trade and environmental policies mutually supportive". WTO Members recognize, however, that the WTO is not an environmental protectionagency and that it does not aspire to become one. Its competence in the field of trade and environmentis limited to trade policies and to the trade-related aspects of environmental policies which have asignificant effect on trade. 在马拉喀什协定序言中,WTO成员方肯定了致力于可持续发展的重要性。另外,关于贸易和环境的部长级会议决议阐述了CTE的工作目标:促使国际贸易和环境政策相互支持。然而,WTO成员方认为WTO并非一个环保机构,并且它本身也不希望成为环保机构。WTO在贸易和环境领域的权限被限制在贸易政策以及对贸易有重要影响的环境政策中与贸易相关的方面。

  34. In addressing the link between trade and environment, WTO Members do not operate on theassumption that the WTO itself has the answer to environmental problems. However, they believe thattrade and environmental policies can complement each other. Environmental protection preserves thenatural resource base on which economic growth is premised, and trade liberalization leads to theeconomic growth needed for adequate environmental protection. To address this, the WTO's role is tocontinue to liberalize trade, as well as to ensure that environmental policies do not act as obstacles totrade, and that trade rules do not stand in the way of adequate domestic environmental protection. 在处理贸易和环境之间的关系时,WTO成员方并没有在“WTO本身能够处理环境问题”这一假设下进行实践。然而,这些成员方相信贸易和环境政策可以互补。环境保护为经济增长所依赖的自然资源提供了保护,而贸易自由化则为进行充分的环境保护提供了经济支持。为了阐明这一观点,WTO的任务是继续促进贸易自由化,同时确保环境政策不对贸易发展构成阻碍,且贸易规则也不能阻碍本国进行充分的环境保护。

  35. GATT/WTO Rules Provide Significant Scope for Environmental Protection WTO Members believe that GATT/WTO rulesalready provide significant scope for Members toadopt national environmental protection policies. GATT rules impose only one requirement in thisrespect, which is that of non-discrimination. WTOMembers are free to adopt national environmental protection policies provided that they do notdiscriminate between imported and domestically-producedlike products (national treatmentprinciple), or between like products imported fromdifferent trading partners (most-favoured-nationclause). Non-discrimination is one of the main principles on which the multilateral trading system isfounded. It secures predictable access to markets, protects the economically weak from the morepowerful, and guarantees consumer choice. WTO成员方认为GATT/WTO规则已经为成员方国采取国家环保政策规定了足够的范围。在这方面,GATT规则仅仅规定了一个强制性要求,即非歧视原则。 WTO成员方国可以自由地采取国家环境保护政策,如果他们平等对待进口产品和国内同类产品(国民待遇原则),或者从不同贸易伙伴处进口的同类产品(最惠国条款)。非歧视原则是支撑多边贸易体制建立的主要原则之一,它保障了市场准入的可预见性,保护经济上的弱者,确保消费者的选择。

  36. Increased Market Access for Developing Countries The special situation of developing countries and the need to assist them in their process of economicgrowth is widely recognized and accepted in the WTO. From the point of view of developing countries,where poverty is the number one policy preoccupation and the most important obstacle toenvironmental protection, the opening up of world markets to their exports is essential. 发展中国家的特殊情况以及在其经济发展过程中对其进行援助的必要性,在WTO内被广泛地承认和接受。从发展中国家的角度看,贫穷问题是其政策的第一要务,也是环保最重要的障碍,世界市场对其出口的开放是必要的。

  37. WTO Membersrecognize that trade liberalization for developing country exports, along with financial and technologytransfers, is necessary in helping developing countries generate the resources they need to protect theenvironment and work towards sustainable development. As many developing and least-developedcountries are heavily dependent on the export of natural resources for foreign exchange earnings, trade liberalization is expected to improve allocation and more efficient use of their resources, as well asenhance export opportunities for their manufactured goods. WTO成员方国认为对于发展中国家的出口,贸易自由化、资金和技术的转移,对于帮助发展中国家形成保护环境和致力于可持续发展所必须的资源来说是必需的。由于许多发展中国家和最不发达国家严重依赖出口自然资源换取外汇收入,贸易自由化被期望用来改善资源的分配和更有效的利用,同时增加出口产品的机会。

  38. Trade and Environment Coordination Should be Enhanced It is widely believed by WTO Members that improved coordination at the national level between tradeand environmental officials can contribute to eliminating policy conflicts between trade andenvironment at the international level. Lack of coordination has, in the past, contributed to thenegotiation of potentially conflicting agreements in trade and environmental fora. WTO成员方普遍认为贸易和环境官员在国家层面上的良好的协调性有助于解决国际层面上的贸易和环境之间的政策冲突。在过去,缺乏协调导致了贸易和环境论坛内因谈判而达成了潜在的冲突协议这一现象的出现。

  39. In addition, it is widely recognized that multilateral cooperation through the negotiation of MEAsconstitutes the best approach for resolving transboundary (regional and global) environmental concerns.MEAs provide a safeguard against unilateral attempts to address environmental problems. Unilateralsolutions are often discriminatory, and frequently involve the extraterritorial application ofenvironmental standards. UNCED clearly endorsed consensual and cooperative multilateralenvironmental solutions to global environmental problems. Such solutions reduce the risks of arbitrarydiscrimination and disguised protectionism, and reflect the international community's common concernand responsibility for global resources. 另外,普遍认为通过MEAs的协商而达成的多变合作是解决跨境(区域的和全球的)环境问题的最佳途径。MEAs防止了单方面解决环境问题的试图。单方面解决环境问题通常具有歧视性,并且涉及环境标准方面治外法权的适用。UNCED明确赞同使用双方同意的、合作性的多边环境解决方案来处理全球环境问题。这样的解决方案减少了主观歧视和变相的贸易保护主义,同时也反映了国际社会对全球资源的普遍关注和责任。

  40. The Doha Mandate on Trade and Environment

  41. At the Doha Ministerial Conference, WTOMembers reaffirmed their commitment tohealth and environmental protection and agreedto embark on a new round of trade negotiations, including negotiations on certainaspects of the linkage between trade andenvironment. 在多哈部长级会议上,WTO成员方方重申了他们对健康和环境保护的承诺,并且同意开始新一轮贸易谈判 ,包括对贸易和环境之间联系的某些方面进行谈判。

  42. In addition to launching newnegotiations, the Doha Ministerial Declarationrequested the CTE, in pursuing work on allitems in its terms of reference, to focus on threeof those items, and, together with theCommitee on Trade and Development, to act as a forum in which the environmental and developmentalaspects of the negotiations can be debated. 除了开始新的谈判,多哈部长宣言还要求CTE 在致力于其所提及的所有事项的同时要将焦点集中于三个事项,并且和贸易和发展委员会一道充当一个论坛,在这个论坛内这些谈判涉及到的环境和发展方面的内容能够得以讨论。

  43. The Doha mandate has placed trade and environmentwork at the WTO on two tracks: • 多哈指令已经使贸易和环境工作以两种方式在WTO内进行: • The CTE Special Session (CTESS) has been established to deal with the negotiations. 已经成立CTE特别会议,以处理相关谈判。 • The CTE Regular deals with the non-negotiating issues of the Doha Ministerial Declaration. CTE定期会议,以处理多哈部长宣言的非谈判性事项。

  44. Moreover, paragraph 28 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration instructs Members "to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on fisheries subsidies, taking into account the importance of this sector todeveloping countries". These negotiations are taking place in the Negotiating Group on Rules. 此外,多哈部长宣言第28段要求成员方方“澄清和改进WTO有关渔业补贴的纪律,同时考虑这一部门对发展中国家的重要性”。这些谈判由规则谈判工作组主持进行。

  45. Trade and Environment Negotiations

  46. Paragraph 31 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration launched negotiations, "with a view to enhancing the mutual supportiveness of trade and environment" and "without prejudging their outcome", on the following issues: “为加强贸易和环境的相互支持”和“不损害其结果”,多哈部长宣言的第31段开启了对下列问题的谈判:

  47. 1. Paragraph 31(i) mandates Members to negotiate on the relationship between WTO rules andspecific trade obligations set out in MEAs. Negotiations are limited in scope to the applicabilityof such existing WTO rules as among parties to the MEA in question. Moreover, the negotiationsare not to prejudice the WTO rights of any Member that is not a party to the MEA in question. 第31段第一条授权成员方对现行WTO 规则和MEAs中所列具体贸易义务之间的关系进行谈判。谈判应仅限于此类现行WTO规则在所涉多边环境协议参加方之间的适用性问题。而且,谈判不得损害不属于所涉多边贸易环境协议参加方的WTO 成员的权利。

  48. 2. Negotiations were also mandated in paragraph 31(ii) on procedures for information exchangebetween MEAs and the relevant WTO committees, and on the criteria for the granting ofobserver status in WTO bodies. 宣言第31段第2条授权成员方就多边贸易环境协议秘书处和相关WTO委员会之间定期交流信息的程序以及给予观察员地位的标准进行谈判。

  49. 3. Finally, negotiations were launched in paragraph 31(iii) on the reduction or, as appropriate, theelimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to environmental goods and services. 最后,宣言第31段第3条开启了关于“酌情削减或取消环境货物和服务的关税和非关税壁垒”的谈判。

  50. The end of paragraph 32 is also relevant to these negotiations. It adds that: 宣言第32段的最后部分也是和这些谈判相关的。它补充道: The outcome… of the negotiations carried out under paragraph 31(i) and (ii) shall be compatiblewith the open and non-discriminatory nature of the multilateral trading system, shall not add toor diminish the rights and obligations of Members under existing WTO agreements, in particularthe Agreement on the Application of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, nor alter thebalance of these rights and obligations, and will take into account the needs of developing and least-developed countries. 这项工作的结果以及在第31段(i)项和(ii)项下进行的谈判应与多边贸易体制的开放和非歧视性质相符,而不得增加或减少各成员在现行WTO协定下,特别是《实施卫生与植物卫生措施协定》下的权利和义务,也不得改变这些权利和义务的平衡,并将考虑到发展中和最不发达国家的需要。