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Crimmigration and the Great Recession: Analysis of the Spanish Case. José Ángel Brandariz García University of A Coruña, Spain branda@udc.es www.ecrim.es. Introduction. Theoretical framework. Crimmigration theory ( Stumpf , 2006) Governing through crime (Simon, 2007)

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crimmigration and the great recession analysis of the spanish case

Crimmigration and the Great Recession: Analysis of the Spanish Case

José Ángel Brandariz García

University of A Coruña, Spain

branda@udc.es

www.ecrim.es

introduction theoretical framework
Introduction. Theoretical framework
  • Crimmigration theory (Stumpf, 2006)
  • Governing through crime (Simon, 2007)
  • Criminal Law of the Enemy (Jakobs, 1997; 2004)
  • Homo Sacer, State of Exception (Agamben, 1995; 2003)
  • Governmentality Studies (Foucault, 2004; Rose, 1999; Dean, 2010)
  • Spanish Crimmigration policies
    • Sovereign reading (CancioMeliá, 2005; IglesiasSkulj, 2011; Navarro Cardoso, 2006)
    • Governmental reading (Calavita, 2005; BrandarizGarcía, 2011)
neo liberalism and sovereignty in spanish crimmigration policies
Neo-liberalism and Sovereignty in Spanish Crimmigration policies
  • Spain: very prominent phenomenon of migrants’ arrival
    • Foreign population multiplied by 6 in 10 years (0.92 million -2000- 5.74 million -2010-)
    • Government of phenomenon through sovereign measures (i.e., centres of detention, administrative removals, penal deportations)
    • However: Less sovereign reading outcomes these policies
      • Outcome: Less exclusion than differential inclusion
slide4
Innovations in the field of Spanish Crimmigration policies since the beginning of the Great Recession
  • Reviewing Literature context of crisis
  • Spanish Government: innovations field Crimmigration policies
  • Government’s main perspective: currently migrants are no longer necessary – Organizing return
    • No major effects of this policy
      • Return migration solely certain nationals (Bolivia-born individuals: 16.1% drop; Brazil-born individuals: 14.2% drop between 01/2009 and 01/2012)
      • Total amount foreign population remained constant since beginning of Great Recession (5.64 million -12% total population- 01/2009; 5.71 million -12.1% total population- 01/2012)
foreign population in spain 2000 2012
Foreign Population in Spain (2000-2012)

Source: National Statistics Institute (INE), Spain

slide6
Innovations in the field of Spanish Crimmigration policies since the beginning of the Great Recession
  • Sovereign, exclusive measures/Measures bound to economic aims/management of efficiency
  • 1st Innovation: (Re-)launch of racist raids main Spanish cities(since 2008)
    • Spanish Government: Denial – Madrid’s data
    • Previous Socialist Government → Police Order No. 1/2010: arrest of migrants –irregular and regular alike- who do not carry residence permit
    • Raids policy understood expression revival sovereign rationale of control context of the crisis (aimed to: legitimize institutional governing employment shortages, ensure social cohesion, prevent emergence xenophobia)
      • However: Incorporation neo-liberal elements of control - Governmental organization of police profiling
        • Monthly quota of arrested irregular migrants – Moroccan nationals priority (Madrid, 2008)
    • Raids policy not only expression of sovereign control - It incorporates neo-liberal concern for efficiency
slide7
Innovations in the field of Spanish Crimmigration policies since the beginning of the Great Recession
  • 2nd Innovation: Deportation Policy
    • Evolution: a) remarkable drop administrative removals; b) almost total replacement of administrative removals by criminal deportations
      • 2000-2007: Vast majority of deportations → administrative removals
      • Since 2008: Significant drop administrative removals Recession context (2008: 5052 → 2011: 2244)
      • Since 2008: gradual replacement of administrative removals by criminal deportations (2008: 5564 -52,4% total- → 2011: 9114 -80,2%-)
        • New centre-right Government; main goals: a) Decrease amount of administrative removals; b) Reserve detention centres for penal deportations
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The complex hybridization of neo-liberal and sovereign devices in the field of Crimmigration policies
    • Analyzing double evolution of deportation policy
      • Sovereign reading: Spanish Government is aiming to strengthen legitimacy, by announcing deportation policy now focused on delinquent migrants
      • Inaccurate/incomplete reading – Interpretation evolution deportation policy: neo-liberal perspective
        • Evolution shows concern limits of public budgets – Amount of administrative removals has to drop because there are not enough resources
        • Policy assumption: most appropriate to enforce penal deportations → criminal ground more solid - Evolution shows concern improving efficient use scarce resources/actuarial mode of risk management
        • Nevertheless: Evolution of deportation policy not consistent with raids policy
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Actuarial/economic rationalization of control policies not simple task – Overcoming sovereign trends domain of security policies → slow and controversial process
  • Literature claims field of control policies not only guided neo-liberal guidelines, but also neoconservative trends, occasionally coming into conflict
    • Recent Literature on governmentality highlighted neo-liberal government through conduct of freedom complemented sovereign rationales of power
      • Recent Literature qualified 1990s texts on governmentality: emphasized exclusively centrality of government through freedom
  • Foucault (2007) pointed out that different technologies of power do not replace each other, but come into conflict in the same historical time
  • Spanish experience field of Crimmigration policies demonstrates may coexist devices of societies of security/sovereign societies/neo-disciplinary dynamics