Lesson Five: The One Against the Many • I. Preparation: • 1. About the author: • Arthur M. Schlesinger, • Jr. (1917- ) • Study note 1 on page 69.
2.About “The One Against the Many”: • The United Stated of America was born in 1783. Within a span of less than 250 years, the U.S. has grown from a new-born country of 13 former colonies to the only superpower in the world with its interests projected to nearly every corner of the world. Why has the US developed so fast?
What are the most important factors that have contributed to such a rapid development? The author thinks that the single most important explanation is “the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of the social and economic order”
This text taking America as an example, analyzes the relationship between “the one” referring to one viewpoint and “the many” referring to many viewpoints. In other words, the author regards pragmatism as the key factor which contributed to the rapid development of the US. Compared with the experience of China, we can further understand the differences between dogmatism, ideology and pragmatism.
II. Outline of the essay • Part I (Para.1) American experience in achieving rapid national development • Part II (Para.2-6) the factors that facilitated the rapid social and economic development of the United States • Part III (Para.7-10) difference between pragmatism and ideology
Part IV (Paras.11-12) an example of distinction between ideals and ideology Part V (Para.13-14) what is wrong with ideology? PartⅥ(Para.15-19) differences between the ideologist and the pragmatist in their views of history and in their approaches to issues of public policy. PartⅦ(Para.20-22) conclusion:the “many” should be the choice
III.Detailed Analysis of the Text: • Part 1 (para.1): American experience • 1. period, epoch, era and age • Period is the general term for any portion of historical time. Epoch and era are often used interchangeably, but in strict discrimination, epoch applies to the beginning of a new period marked by radical changes, new developments, etc., and era, to the entire period.
Age is applied to a long period identified with some dominant personality or distinctive characteristic. • e.g. The curtain was rung up on a new epoch in our history. 我国历史上一个新纪元的序幕揭开了 Einstein's theory marked a new epoch in history.爱因斯坦的理论标志着历史上一个新时代的开始。
The October Revolution ushered in a new era in the history of mankind.十月革命开创了人类历史的新纪元。 We are living in the computer era. 我们正生活在计算机时代。 Many people call the age we live in the age of technology.许多人把我们生活的时代叫做工业技术时代。
2. instructive: enlightening, informative e.g. He found it both interesting and instructive to learn about the careers of great men.他觉得了解伟人的生平既很有趣又有教益。 This is an instructive book.这是本有教育意义的书。
Part II (Paras.2-6): Factors • This part deals with the factors that facilitated the rapid social and economic development of the United States. The author points out in Paragraph 6 that the fundamental factor has been the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of social and economic order.
Para.2 • 1. The first sentence of this paragraph is a transitional sentence. The last sentence refers to the several fundamental elements that facilitated the rapid social and economic development of the American continent.
2. capacity: ability to do things e.g. He has an inbred capacity for reading the riddle the right way in cases of mystery, great or small. We are impressed by his capacity for handling an immense amount of work without appearing to extend我们很佩服他能处理大量的工作而看来一点也不勉强。
3. bless - give a benediction to e.g. Bless you, my boy. 孩子, 为你祝福。 Good-bye, and may God bless you.再见,愿上帝保佑你。 Bless her from marrying a miser.上天保佑她不要和一个吝啬鬼结婚。 Bless your heart, I know you didn't break the vase on purpose. Don't cry.好了好了，我知道你不是故意把花瓶打破的。别哭了。
4. above all: over and above all other factors or considerations e.g. Prize security aboveall else. 安全第一 He was aboveall a good and tireless writer.他首先是位优秀的、不知疲倦的作家。 What a child should do, aboveall, is to do well in his studies.小孩子该做的最重要的事是学好功课。
5.scarce; rare scarce: insufficient to meet demand rare: unusual; excellent; undercooked, as meat e.g. His collection of rare books is worth millions. Jack is a rare friend. I like rare steak, nice and bloody! Food was scarce throughout the war.
6. in relation to something: compared with something; and how that connects to something e.g. I have nothing to say inrelationto that matter. 关于那件事, 我没什么好说的。 You are only slightly underweight for (i.e. inrelationto) your height.按你的身高来说, 你体重仅稍轻一点儿.
7. ratio: relation in degree or number between two similar things e.g. The ratio of students to teachers is 35:1.学生和老师的比率是三十五比一。 Men outnumber women here in the ratio of three to one. 此地男子数量以三比一超过女子。 The birthrate in this city is increasing at a ratio of0.6 to a thousand every year.这个城市的出生率以每年千分之0．6的比率上升。
8. “Had that been so, the Indians, for whom the ratio was even more favorable, would have developed the county long before the first settlers arrives from over the seas.”
This statement is in the subjunctive mood. The original sentence is “If the favorable ratio between population and resources had been the only factor the Indians, for whom the ratio was even more favorable, would have developed the county long before the first settlers arrives from over the seas.” Who were “the first settlers”?
Generally speaking, they referred to the founders of Jamestown (Virginia) in 1607 and the 102 passengers who sailed on the mayflower in 1620 to plant the first colony at Plymouth in what is today southeastern Massachusetts.
9. approach: v.to begin to deal with or work on (= go about; set about); to come near or nearer, as in space or time • e.g. • He prefers to approach a problem from different angles他喜欢由不同的角度研究一个问题. • Spring approaches.
Para. 3 • 1. This paragraph is about the first factor: the deep faith in education. • “It arose originally from a philosophical rather than an economic commitment—from a faith in the dignity of man and from the resulting belief that it is the responsibility of society to offer man the opportunity to develop his highest potentialities. But at the same time, it also helped produce the conditions essential to successful modernization. ”
2. Why did it originally arise from a philosophical rather than an economic commitment?
The thinking of Thomas Jefferson exemplifies the position that state-supported education for all citizens is a basic requirement for democracy. He wrote in 1816, “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.”
3. Through this paragraph, we can know the importance of education to a development of a nation, as a Chinese college student what do you think is the distinct importance of education to our country? • 4.What is the function of the last sentence?
In spite of the fact that economic commitment was not the major reason for respect for learning, wide literacy became a necessary condition for modernization. This statement also lends itself to smooth transition to the next paragraph.
5. arise: come into being e.g. Accidents often arise from carelessness.事故往往起因于粗心。 How did this quarrel arise.这场争吵是由于何种原因引起的?
Para. 4 • The first sentence of this paragraph is the topic sentence. This sentence, linking up with the last sentence of paragraph 3, forms a smooth transition. • 1. Do you think the concept applicable to China?
Yes. The national strategy of economic development through science-technology and education is based on this concept.
2. attribute: to relate to a particular cause or source; ascribe (v.); a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to someone or something (n.);
e.g. • They attribute their success to their teacher's encouragement.他们把成功归因于老师的鼓励。 • Politeness is an attribute of a gentleman.彬彬有礼是绅士的本色。 • Her greatest attribute was her kindness.她最大的特点是为人厚道.
4. rightly: in a correct manner; properly; with honesty; justly.; really (informal)
e.g. If I remember rightly the party starts at 8 pm.我记得聚会是在下午8点开始. He believed, rightly or wrongly, that she was guilty.对也罢，错也罢，反正他认为她是有罪的。 I don't rightly know whether it was Tuesday or Wednesday. 我说不准那天是星期二还是星期三。
5. tangible:perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch (= concrete; intangible) e.g. There is no tangible proof.没有确凿的证据。 The U.S. troops brought few tangible benefits to the Iraqi people. 美国部队没有伊拉克人民带来多少实际好处。
Para. 5 • This paragraph is about another factor: self-government and representative institutions. We have found no better way than democracy to fulfill man’s talents and release his energies.
1. Self-government: it is the principle that the people are the ultimate source of governing authority and that their general welfare is the only legitimate purpose of government.
2. representative institutions: (代议制政府机构)They refer to a system of government institutions that give citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf.
3. commitment: the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose; • the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action (= loyalty, dedication )
His political commitment is only skin-deep.他政治上的承诺只是表面文章。 The President affirmed America's commitment to its European allies.总统申明美国履行对其欧洲盟国承担的义务. I felt I did not have to make such a commitment to them. 我觉得我没有必要对他们作出那样的承诺。
In the last decade，however，we have sought to fulfill the goal with greater zeal，greater commitment，and greater success than at any period in our history. 在过去十年中，我们比历史上任何时期都力求更加热心地，更加献身地，更加成功地来达到这个目标 My aunt has a sincere commitment to Buddhism.我姑妈笃信佛教。
4. fulfill: to develop to the full e.g. She fulfilled herself both as a mother and as a successful writer. 作为一名母亲和作为一名成功的作家，她都充分发挥了自己的才能。She succeeded fulfilling herself as an actress. 她作为一名演员充分发挥了自己的才干。
5. Put the following sentences into Chinese: • 1)The doctor’s instructions must be • fulfilled exactly. • 2)This way of life no longer fulfills the • individuals concerned. 3)If he is lazy, he will never fulfill his • ambition to be a doctor. 5. What is cooperative activity?
6.initiative - readiness to embark on bold new ventures; the first of a series of actions (=go-ahead, first step, opening move) e.g. man‘s subjective initiative 人的主观能动性 The initiative has passed to us. 主动权已转到我方 give full scope to the initiative of the masses.充分发挥群众的积极性 In the absence of my commanding officer, I acted on my own initiative. 指挥官不在场, 我主动见机行事.
7. Another has been the understanding of the role of cooperative activity, public as well as voluntary: • In this sentence the author wants to show that emphasis on personal freedom and personal initiative does not preclude cooperative activity, which is also very important.
Cooperative activity takes two forms; one is public, that is to say, compulsory; the other is voluntary. Public cooperative activity presumably is organized by the government. Voluntary activity is widespread in the U.S. Community service and community spirit is a case in point. There are also many voluntary organizations in the U.S.
Para. 6: the most important factor • 1. …the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of the social and economic order:
As a nation, America has refused to cling to certain rigid principles concerning social and economic development. America has been adaptable and flexible.
2. America has had the good fortune not to be an ideological society: • It is lucky that Americans are not keen on following a body of rigid ideas or theories in their social, economic or political activities.
3. dogmatic: opinionated (=arbitrary) • e.g. • A teacher who is not dogmatic is simply a teacher who is not teaching. • You have merely made a few dogmatic comments on my work, and I can’t accept your dogmatic opinion.