Adverbes de temps
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Adverbes de temps. Again : The slaves was whipped again after he had let the jug fall . Ago: Not a very long time ago, slavery was common practice in many Western kingdoms.

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  • Again: The slaves waswhippedagainafterhehad let the jugfall.

  • Ago: Not a very long time ago, slavery was common practice in many Western kingdoms.

  • After: Even after slavery was abolished / after the abolition of slavery, black people were discriminated against. After leaving their masters, freed slaves roamed homeless and jobless.

  • Afterwards: A new housekeeper was hired. Afterwards, nothing was the same again.

  • Already: Slavery had already been abolished when this black stevedore was beaten to death by racist southerners.

  • Always: Man will always exploited weaker men or creatures.

  • Around: Around the mid-nineteenth century abolitionists gained much political clout.

  • As: As the master was lying on the sofa, a maid served him tea.

  • As far back as the 1780s, many British thinkers promoted equality.

  • As early as the 1780s…

  • Before: Before she was dismissed, she had been written up by the butler. Before cleaning the house, she had to prepare dinner. Before her arrival (prior to her arrival), the children had received no education.

  • Beforehand: Wash the floor! But beforehand, be sure the laundry is clean.

  • By: By the end of the day, the servants had prepared a gorgeous banquet for the 50 guests or so who were expected the next day. By the time she had finished preparing the meal, it was dark.

  • During: During a meal at court, the servants were summoned a hundredth times.

  • Early / Late: In the early 1930s’ only the richest families still had maids and servants. In the late nineteenth century industrializationgained momentum and former servants started working in the factories.

  • Ever: That’s the saddest story I have ever heard about a young country girl. Have you ever met such a ruthless master?

  • Ever since: Ever since slavery was abolished, other forms of exploitation have been devised.

  • Finally, eventually, in the end: He finally left. the butler.

  • First: When the law abolishing slavery was voted, people were first thrilled by the event.

  • For: For several decades the situation of farm labourers was no better than that of villeins.

  • Formerly: Slavery, formerly a scourge in the Roman Empire, still ruins the lives of many human beings.

  • From…until: From the early 20s until the late 30s the Bates hired up to 50 servants.

  • From now on, no one will be allowed to resort to forced labor.

  • Hardly: Hardly had he broken the vase when the mistress of the house dismissed him.

  • Hardly ever (seldom, rarely): Servants were hardly ever rewarded.

  • Hitherto: Hitherto, ethnic minority people have remained the lowest-earning workers.

  • How long? How long have you been working there?

  • Just: She had just finished cleaning the house when she was urged to sweep the floor.

  • Lately (recently): Lately, there has been a huge decrease in wages.

  • Meanwhile / In the mean time: The young earl was strolling in the garden; meanwhile a dozen gardeners were trimming the hedges.

Never the house dismissed him. : Never will such a demeaning treatment be permitted!

  • Next: He first behaved very decently but next showed nothing but scorn and envy.

  • No sooner…than : No sooner had the servant expressed his disagreement than he was fired.

  • Now, now and again: He would rant and rage now and again whenever a servant disobeyed.

  • Nowadays: Nowadays, only the most affluent households still employ servants.

  • Often: He would often scold the nurse but showed no nastiness towards her. How often were servants allowed vacation?

  • Of late: I’ve heard of an increase in human trafficking of late.

  • On + bv-ing: On landing in her new job, she was a bit anxious unless she should displease the mater of the house.

  • Once: Once she got acquainted with the other servants, she felt at ease.

  • Once upon a time in a castle nestled in greenery…

  • Over: Over the last decades of the 1çth century, some major reforms revolutionized the situation of the working class.

  • Regularly, frequently, on a regular basis.

  • Seldom / rarely: Servants were seldom well-considered, they were often overlooked and despised.

  • Since: Since he had outwitted his master, the rebellious slave was isolated from his fellow-slaves.

  • Sometimes (at times, occasionally, every so often): They would sometimes be offered clothes.

  • Soon: The ruthless master was soon nailed by the police and tried for inhumane treatment.

  • Still: When I met Samuel a few years ago, he was still working as a butler.

  • Then (subsequently): He was fired but then he found another job as a housekeeper.

  • Thenceforth (fml)/ He thenceforh decided he would never work for a master again.

  • Thereafter (fml): He left the house and therefater got a position in another district of the city.

  • Thereupon / whereupon: The lady gave them a few orders, whereupon she locked herself back in her boudoir.

  • Through: All through the nineteenth century riots and social unrest hit the industrial cities of Northern England.

  • Throughout: Throughout the eighties new middle-class cities mushroomed in the outskirts of the city and many women were hired as cleaners.

  • Till / Until: Till then, no servant had dared to say a word about the matter.

  • When / whenever: Whenever a servant misbehaved, the butler tried to conceal the misdeed.

  • While: While the king was feasting with his guest, musicians played the guitar to entertain them.

  • Within: The rebellious slave was whipped within a matter of hours after his mischief.

  • Yet: Exploitation has not been eradicated yet.

Translation exercise
Translation working as a butler. exercise

  • A peine avait-elle fini de laver le linge, qu’elle devait retourner à l’office avant de préparer le repas.

  • Depuis son arrivée au château, il se plaint de ses conditions de vies et de ses heures de travail.

  • Pendant des années, il a travaillé au service de cette famille pour un maigre salaire.

  • Les bonnes sont parties travailler à la ville, après quoi trouver des domestiques devient plus difficile.

  • Tout en frottant (scrub) les plats, les domestiques papotaient.

  • Seulement quelques années avant son arrivée à Londres, elle était encore naïve.

  • A-t-on jamais vu une bonne à tout faire si dévouée!