Social Development Theory Vygotsky
Background • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) • Russian psychologist • Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory (unknown until 1962) • Focused on any connection between people and the experiences they shared or had
Overview of Theory • Two levels of cultural development • Social • Individual • Major Themes • The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) • The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) • Social Interaction • Defined stages of development
Cultural Development – Social • Full cognitive development requires social interaction • Gain knowledge through this step • Formal education • Interactions with others • Past experiences • Two kinds of learning • Spontaneous
Cultural Development- Individual • How they use the information they gained from the social development stage • Ability to use an acquired skill set • Pointing a finger • Two kinds of learning • Scientific
The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) • Anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner • Parent • Coach • Teacher • Siblings • Usually has to do with a respect to a particular task, process, or concept • Scaffolding
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) • Distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under “MKO” and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. • According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone. • http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Vygotsky%27s_constructivism
Social Interaction • “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” • Fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.
Defined Stages • His theory states that development is limited to a certain range at a certain age. • This development is assisted by continued social interaction.
Problems/ Criticisms • Too optimistic • Gender not considered • Impractical- requires one on one education