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Maria Anwer. BB-11-01. AYUB KHAN REGIME. (1958-1969). Military Career. A ppointed as the first Pakistani Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army by Liaquat Ali Khan in 1951.

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maria anwer

Maria Anwer


ayub khan regime



military career
Military Career
  • Appointed as the first Pakistani Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army by Liaquat Ali Khanin 1951.
  • Promoted over several senior officers with distinguished careers.
  • Became a powerful political figure within a short period of time.
end of the democratic system
End of the Democratic System
  • By 1958, the government of IskanderMirza was unpopular and the political situation was chaotic.
    • Between 1955 and 1958, five different prime ministers tried unsuccessfully to establish a stable government.
    • In East Pakistan, severe floods caused food shortages and great distress.
    • People were in despair as Pakistan faced bankruptcy and chaos.
    • To most Pakistanis and the rest of the world, the government seemed corrupt and inefficient.
    • According to the Constitution, elections were to be held in 1958; politicians tried to win support by any means.
  • On 7 October 1958, martial law was declared by President IskanderMirza.
ayub khan taking power
Ayub Khan Taking Power
  • AyubKhan took the role of Chief Martial Law Administrator.
  • On 27 October, he removed IskanderMirza from office and exiled him to London.
  • Ayub Khan took on the office of President as well.
  • To his supporters, this event was known as the ‘Glorious Revolution’.
reforms introduced by ayub khan
Reforms Introduced By Ayub Khan
  • Political Reforms
  • Agricultural Reforms
  • Economic Reforms
  • Social Reforms and Educational Reforms
  • Foreign Policies, etc.
public and representative office disqualification act proda
Public and Representative Office Disqualification Act (PRODA)
  • The PRODA prescribed fifteen years' exclusion from public office for those found guilty of corruption.
  • About 3,000 officials were dismissed and many other were reduced in rank as a result of these measures.
elective bodies disqualification order ebdo
Elective Bodies Disqualification Order (EBDO)
  • Passed in August 1959.
  • Special tribunals authorized to try former politicians for "misconduct," which was not clearly defined.
  • 75 leaders were disqualified for 8 years.
  • East Pakistani politicians primarily targeted from the AwamiLeague.
  • About 7,000 individuals were "EBDOed.".
press and publications ordinance
Press And Publications Ordinance
  • Amended in 1960 to specify broad conditions under which
    • Newspapers and other publications could be closed down.
    • Trade organizations, unions, and student groups were closely monitored and cautioned to avoid political activity.
    • Imams at mosques were warned against including political matters in sermons.
1959 basic democracies
1959 Basic Democracies
  • Introduction on 26 October 1959.
  • A four-tier system which would consist of

80,000 elected Basic Democrats would also form the Electoral College for the election of the President and members of the Central and Provincial Legislatures.

  • First elections were held in January 1960 in which 40,000 Basic Democrats were elected in each province.
  • On February 7 1960, 95% of the Basic Democrats elected Ayub Khan as the President of Pakistan.
1962 constitution
1962 Constitution
  • Announced on 1 March 1962.
  • Although Ayub Khan described it as combining ‘democracy with discipline’.
  • Its main features were presidential:
    • The President nominated the Cabinet from the members of the National Assembly, but they would have to resign from the National Assembly if made ministers.

The President could not be removed unless impeached.

  • The President nominated the heads of the judiciary and the provincial governors (who then nominated their Cabinets).
  • The National Legislature could not pass a law without the approval of the President.
  • The constitution shall be amended only by a two-thirds majority of the Assembly and assent of the president. If the president does not agree, it shall need a three-quarters majority. Even then, the president shall choose whether to dissolve the Assembly or call a referendum.
constitution 1962
Constitution 1962
  • Introduced without debate and AyubKhan brought martial law to an end soon afterwards.
  • The new National Assembly met on 8 June 1962.
  • It appeared that Pakistan was moving nearer to a democratic system, but actually, Ayub’s reforms had increased the powers of the ruling elite.
criticism political reforms
Criticism-Political Reforms
  • 1962 Constitution

The Constitution upset the people of East Pakistan. Various steps were taken for them:

    • National languages-Urduand Bengali.
    • The National Assembly Session-Dhakaand Islamabad.
    • President and Speakerof the National Assembly.
  • Despite these measures, the people of East Pakistan still believed that Pakistan was, in reality, government of East Pakistan by West Pakistan.

Insistence on the One Unit Scheme

This produced instant reaction among the small provinces and regional parties of Bengal. They started agitation against Ayub’s regime to force him to dissolve One Unit.

  • A Controlled Democracy

The National Assembly passed a number of controversial bills during its life.

    • One bill, passed in June 1964, allowed the president to remain in office until a successor was found.
    • The Electoral College Bill meant that an electoral college of 80,000 would be elected who in turn would elect the president.
agricultural reforms1
Agricultural Reforms
  • From the very beginning, a few notable agricultural families had spread their tentacles in the political set-up of Pakistan.
  • In the former West Pakistan, politics was dominated by a few wealthier landowner families.
land reforms commission
Land Reforms Commission
  • Appointed in October, 1958
  • Submitted its report within three months
  • Led to a number of reforms aimed at:
    • Eliminating the monopoly of the big landowners and particularly the absentee landlords, in the politics
    • Providing security for tenure
    • Providing fairer distribution and ownership of land
land reforms
Land Reforms
  • A person could not own more than either 500 acres of canal irrigated land or 1000 acres of unrelated land.
  • Utilization of resumed area.
  • Creation of pool.
  • Jagirs.
  • Protection to tenants.
  • Proprietary rights for the tenants.
  • A total of 2.5 million acres of land was resumed
  • 2.3 million areas of land was distributed to nearly 1.8 lakh peasants.
  • Movement started for voluntary reductions in individual ownership, encouraging creation of a strong middle-class of owner-operated farms of economic size.
  • Some people benefited while the powerful landlords managed to hang on to most of their land holdings. Quite a bit of the land they gave up was actually very poor land that they were glad to get rid of!
other measures for agriculture
Other Measures For Agriculture
  • Three major dams were built to help irrigation.
  • The Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) was set up.
  • Farmers were also loaned money to build wells to reduce the need for canal irrigation.
green revolution
Green Revolution

Growth in agriculture:

phases of green revolution
Phases Of Green Revolution

1. 1960-1965

  • Main cause of the growth was the increase in irrigation facilities, mainly tube wells.
  • Between 1960-65, about 25,000 tube wells were installed, each costing R.s. 5000-12000 and the farm area serviced by tube wells doubled.

2. 1966-1970

  • Growth took place mainly because the expanded irrigation facilities were supplemented by the technology package of
    • High yielding varieties (HYV) seeds,
    • Chemical fertilizers and
    • Pesticides.
criticism green revolution
Criticism-Green Revolution
  • Issues of Tube wells
  • They were highly regionalized, e.g. 91% of the 76,000 tube wells in 1968 were in Punjab.
  • Given the size and cost of tube wells, they were mainly installed by landowners with over 25 acres of land (70%).
  • Poor and illiterate farmers could not take benefit of the credit policies offered by the ADBP to purchase and install tube wells.

2. Issues of Tractorization

  • 75% of privately owned tractors were on farms that had sunk tube wells.



3. Regional and Income Disparities

  • Purchase of tractors and access to credit were inaccessible to poorer farmers.
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and south-eastern parts of Sindh had inadequate access to water and the HYV technology. Thus, regional disparities increased.

So, the Green Revolution of Pakistan was produced by the farmers who owned between 50 and 100 acres, almost all of them in Punjab. The Green Revolution has therefore been called and ‘Elite Farmer Strategy’.

criticism land reforms
Criticism-Land Reforms
  • Almost three-quarters of resumed land, at least in the Punjab, was uncultivated and untenanted. This meant that the amount of land available for redistribution was even more limited.
  • Landlord-tenant relations were left unchanged, to be governed by the tenancy acts passed in the early fifties and to be supervised by the revenue service.
sana irum

Sana Irum


1 industrial reforms
1) Industrial Reforms
  • Economic development was a priority for Ayub Khan.
  • He recruited able economists and advisers, many of whom had been trained in the USA.
  • So successful were his policies that businessmen and leaders around the world began to praise the ‘Pakistan Miracle’.

In February 1959, the Government announced a new industrial policy of “gradual liberalization of economy” to pave way for smooth industrial growth.

  • Main emphasis on the utilization of raw materials available in the country to benefit small and medium scale industries.
  • The extreme bureaucratic restraints were removed by a more market-oriented approach.
establishment of financial and development corporations
Establishment of Financial and Development Corporations
  • Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) was set up with a capital of R.s 1 billion.
  • It was put in charge to promote the following industries:
    • Jute Paper-board and newsprint
    • Heavy engineering
    • Fertilizers
    • Sugar
    • Cement
    • Textiles, etc.
industrial trading estates
Industrial Trading Estates
  • Four new estates for small industries were established in
    • Bahawalpur,
    • Gujarat,
    • Larkana and
    • Peshawar
  • This helped in the process of industrialization by handling the initial difficulties faced by new industrialists.
price stability
Price Stability
  • In October 1958, the government took several measures to check inflation.
  • Price Controls
    • Price controls covering a large number of consumer goods and industrial raw materials were imposed.
    • These measures led to a fall in prices and improvement in supply position of a large number of articles.
    • They relaxed the control over industrial investment and trade.
    • Moreover, the government removed the constraints on profit margin and prices.

Other Measures

    • Government borrowing for financing fiscal deficits was reduced sharply.
    • Efforts to broaden the direct taxation system kept the indirect taxation to minimum and hence prices of goods remained stable.
    • Needs of additional defence spending were met by additional taxation.
  • Therefore, the average annual rate of growth of prices was only 3.3%.
investment promotion bureau
Investment Promotion Bureau
  • Set up in April 1959.
  • To attract foreign investment for the establishment of new industries
  • To provide guidance to industrialists and investors.
  • To solve problems of foreign investors in the matter findingland, water, power, etc.
  • Industrial legislation was introduced to facilitate the growth of industry with minimum government interference.
  • Therefore, this led to encouragement of private enterprise.
other measures related to industry
Other Measures Related To Industry
  • Supply of credit
    • Credit was liberally provided to the industrial sector by both the commercial banks & the specialized credit institutions, e.g. Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP).
    • National Investment trust was set-up to attract small saving into industrial investment.

Foreign Aid and Loans

    • Loans were taken from more industrialized western countries, particularly the USA, Germany and the UK.
    • These played a dominant role in the industrial and economic development of Pakistan.
    • Without that aid, the remarkable growth in that era could not be possible.


    • New industries were given tax holidays. This led to the inflow of capital (from 13.20 Million in 1956 to 26.28 Million in 1966).
    • Private investment growth in West Pakistan during 1960-1965 increased over three folds.
    • It declined over by 20% in next five years but still during the 1960’s, real private fixed investment more than doubled, grew faster than public investment, and accounted for nearly half of the total fixed investment by 1969-1970.
    • Political stability, liberalization of investment controls and ample availability of foreign exchange were key factors influencing a pronounced acceleration in the pace of private investment.
    • The increase in investment contributed to an increase in economic growth naturally.

Water and Power Investments

    • Total water and power investments in West Pakistan during the 1960’s, including the, exceeded US $2.5 Billion and accounted for more than 50% of total public sector spending.

Unification of Domestic Markets

    • Domestic markets were unified so that the finished goods could travel easily from one place to another.
  • In 1962, an oil refinery was established in Karachi.
  • A Mineral Development Corporation was set up in 1962, for the exploration of mineral deposits.
  • In 1964, an economic union was formed with Iran and Turkey, the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) in which the three countries agreed to develop ties in trade, commerce and industry.
trade policy
Trade Policy
  • Introduced in 1959.
  • Focus on indirect controls on imports and on domestic prices of other goods.
  • A number of measures were taken on import licensing that made market forces more important in determining the ownerships of import licenses.
export bonus scheme
Export Bonus Scheme
  • Introduced in 1959.
  • A flexible and fascinating device which was used both to subsidize exports and to allow a safety valve on imports, while maintaining the basic structure of import controls and the official exchange rate at its existing level.
  • Over 1959-64, total imports increased much more rapidly than exports or GNP, and the composition of imports continued to shift towards the import of capital goods and processed intermediate goods.
open general licensing scheme
Open General Licensing Scheme
  • Allowed newcomers to enter the trading sector.
  • A large amount of foreign exchange was allocated to the OGL, and the new traders made substantial profits and gains from possessing import licenses.
free list
Free List
  • Permitted the import of certain goods without any license.
  • The Free List was extended over time from four items to fifty in 1964.
criticism economic reforms
  • Widened the gap between the two wings of the country and gave rise to educational and class inequalities.

Criticism Of Industrial Reforms

  • Disagreements exist over the nature and consequences of those growth rates and over the interpretation of the economic policies.
  • Increasing disparities existed in regional income.
  • Real wages failed to increase significantly.
  • Industrial economic power was concentrated in only few hands (22 families controlling 66% of the country’s industrial assets).

Criticism Of Trade Reforms

  • The rise in exports of processed goods was at the expense of the raw materials that would otherwise have been exported.
  • Some exports may have taken place even if this scheme had not been introduced.
  • Many exporters sold their goods in the foreign market at lower prices, sometimes even below cost, since they calculated their return in Rupees in which terms the loss could be made up by the sale of bonus vouchers.

More than 40% of the imports of the government were financed by the foreign aid component, which was 6% of GDP in 1964/5.

  • When aid was severely curtailed after June 1965, the government had to abandon its liberal import policy and felt it necessary to reimpose a number of import controls.
    • The Free List was reduced from sixty-six items in 1964 to fourteen in 1969 and to eleven in 1971.
    • There was also a cut in the licensable list.
zahra nasir

Zahra Nasir


action against hoarding black markets and smuggling
Action against Hoarding, Black Markets and Smuggling
  • With many shortages of goods, some goods were hoarded so that the price would rise and they could be sold at a bigger profit.
  • Tough action brought down prices.
  • Goods were seized from profiteers and many arrests were made.
fixation of the prices of essential foods
Fixation of the prices of essential foods

Shortly after taking power, the government fixed the price of

  • milk,
  • vegetables and
  • ghee

to stop traders from making too much profit at the expense of the people.

new housing developments
New Housing Developments
  • A new and enthusiastic minister for Rehabilitation, lieutenant- General Azam Khan, started tackling the refugee problems.
  • A massive new housing development at Korangi provided new homes for refugees living in Karachi.
  • 75,000 refugees were settled in newly built dwellings near Karachi.
  • Laws were passed that factory owners had to provide accommodation for their workers at a reasonable rent.
marriage and divorce laws
Marriage and Divorce Laws
  • In 1961, the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance helped improve the position of women.
    • Divorce by simple repudiation was no longer allowed.
    • Marriages and divorces had to be registered and approved by a court.
    • Further marriages also had to be approved by a court.
    • The minimum age for marriage was set at 16 for women and 18 for men.
    • The grandson of a pre-deceased son was allowed to inherit the property of his grandfather.
  • An important step towards improving women rights.
measures to control population
Measures to control population
  • In 1955 a legal commission was set up to suggest reforms of the family and marriage laws.
  • In 1961, Family Laws Ordinance issued.
  • A Family Planning Program was set up which was largely funded by American loans.
  • The government used radio, cinema, newspapers, posters and leaflets to persuade Pakistanis to limit the size of their families.
health facilities
Health Facilities
  • Medical facilities were also improved.
  • More medical and nursing training schools were set up.
  • This was to increase the number of well-trained doctors and nurses in the country.
modernization of islam
Modernization Of Islam
  • In 1962, the term Islamic Republicwas dropped in favor of simply Republic of Pakistan.
  • An Advisory Council f Islamic Ideology was set up to advise Ayub Khan as to whether or not policies and laws were acceptable on Muslim principles.
  • The Ayub government set up an Ulema Academy in Lahore. It was an attempt by the government to modernize the ulama and religious leadership in the country.
critisism social reforms
  • The biggest policy failure in the Ayub era was in the social area.
  • The Family Planning Program had limited impact on birth rate because the health workers themselves were illiterate and the program became prone to corruption. It was also criticized by the religious sections of the society.
  • The laws introduced for improving the status of women in the society also were unable to change the patriarchal society of Pakistan and they were also resisted by the ulemas.

The religious sections of the society severely resisted the modernization agenda.

  • There was an increasing inequality in urban incomes. The share of wages and salaries in net output fell suggesting an increase in the share of profits.
  • Wages did not increase despite improvement in labor productivity which was due to serious limits on the powers of labor union.
aasia yasmeen



educational reforms

After the Report of the Commission on National Education whichidentified the importance of education as an investment in national growth:

  • Education up to Class V was made free and compulsory.
  • Secondary education boards were set up to oversee secondary schooling up to Class XII.
  • A new curriculum for schools was drawn up and it was suggested that new textbooks should be published.

An extensive literacy program was started, building new schools and colleges.

  • Technical education was made mandatory.
  • University degree courses were extended from two to three years.
  • Progress was made to improve scientific education and research.
  • Civil Defense training was made mandatory in the schools and colleges.
criticism educational reforms
Criticism-Educational Reforms
  • The Second Plan set target of increasing primary school enrolment ratio in West Pakistan to 56% in 1965 but the ratio improved only to 36% because the population growth rate had been seriously underestimated.
  • The Third Plan again set a target of raising enrolment to 70% but the actual expenditures on education were much lower because of lower resources.
  • Female education was given low priority in West Pakistan by the governing elite and social attitudes who did not favor educating women.
  • The urban bias in education was intensified.
new capital1

Ayub’sgovernment decided to build a new capital because:

  • Traditionally, development in Pakistan was focused on Karachi, and President Ayub Khan wanted it to be equally distributed.
  • Karachi was located at one end of the country and could be easily attacked from the Arabian Sea. A capital which was easily accessible from all parts of the country was needed.
  • Karachi, a business center, was also considered unsuitable partly because of intervention of business interests in government affairs.

Construction was started in October 1961.

  • The city came into life on 26 October 1966 when the first office building of Islamabad was occupied.
  • In 1967, Islamabad was officially made the capital.
  • It is a modern and carefully planned city.
criticism new capital
Criticism- New capital
  • The change was yet another cause of discontent in East Pakistan. They preferred other sites for the national capital in their part of the country.
  • Building Islamabad cost a great deal of money at a time when many Pakistanis were expecting shortages.
  • It was claimed that Ayub Khan’s friends in the army and in the industry were making fortunes out of land speculation in the new city.
1 relations with usa
  • In 1958, General Ayub Khan stated that we are “the most allied ally” of the United States”.
  • This shows that during this era Pakistan became more pro-west.
  • AyubKhan believed that Pakistan could not make progress unless the Kashmir problem was solved, which was not possible without the help of the Western Bloc.
  • On the other side the United States aims were to help Pakistan and to maintain her independence in an area threatened by communism.
defense for bilateral cooperation
Defense for Bilateral Cooperation.
  • Signed by Pakistan and USA on 5th March.
  • According to this agreement, USA agreed to cooperate with Pakistan to deal with its security threats and requirements.
  • USA was promoting its national interest by maintaining the independence of Pakistan.
  • USA also declared that any attack on Pakistan would be considered as attack on America.
  • This alliance upgraded defense of Pakistan against all aggression including the possible threat from India.
relations after 1959
Relations After 1959
  • In 1962, China and India went to war. As China was communist, the USA immediately sent military aid to help India fight. This move offended the Pakistan government.
  • In 1962, Ayub Khan visited China and in 1965, the Soviet Union. These visits displeased the USA.
  • During the 1965 war between India and Pakistan, the USA joined the UK in an arms embargo on both countries. As the Pakistan army was almost entirely dependent on the USA for supplies and training, the embargo was far more damaging to it than to India.

Despite these incidents, Ayub Khan was generally considered the architect of good relations between the USA and Pakistan.

  • He allowed the Americans to build air bases in Pakistan.
  • He also remained loyal to the USA during the highly embarrassing ‘U2 Affair’ on 1 May 1960, when an American spy plane had taken off from Peshawar and had been shot down over Soviet territory.
sadaf akram



2 relations with india

Indus-Water Treaty

  • India controlled the head works of the pre-partition irrigation canals.
  • Pakistan feared that India might repeat a 1948 incident that curtailed the water supply as a means of coercion.
  • The Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, backed by the World Bank and the United States, finally found favor with Ayub Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru.

The agreement also detailed transitional arrangements, new irrigation and hydroelectric power works, and the waterlogging and salinity problems in Pakistan's Punjab.

  • The Indus Basin Development Fund was also established.
indo pak war 1965

AyubKhan had to deal with the war between India and Pakistan that took place in 1965, which caused further problems for his regime.

Pre-War Escalation

  • After its success in the Rann of Kutch, Pakistan, under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir.

Pakistan started Operation Gibraltar. The Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered and the operation ended in a complete failure.

  • On 5 August 1965 around 30,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control dressed as Kashmiri locals.
  • By the end of August, however, both sides had relative progress.

India crossed the International Border on the Western front on 6 September, marking an official beginning of the war.

  • A heroic defence by the troops in and near Lahore prevented it form being captured by the Indian troops.
  • After three weeks of fighting, peace was achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the great powers.
tashkent declaration
Tashkent Declaration
  • The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
  • A meeting was held between Indian Prime Minister LalBahadurShastri and AyubKhan, in Tashkent in the Uzbek SSR, USSR (now in Uzbekistan) from 4 January to 10 January 1966.
  • The conference was viewed as a great success but it compelled Pakistan and India to restore their national boundary and the 1949 ceasefire line in Kashmir. This eventually led to dissatisfaction and protests against the Ayub Khan leadership.
3 relations with the soviet union

During the Ayub Khan Regime, relations deteriorated and improved again due to several events.

  • In May 1960, relations reached a low point when a spy plane form the US base in Peshawar was shot down over the Soviet Union. The Pakistan government denied any knowledge of the American spying, but the Soviet government did not accept this.

However, relations improved gradually after 1960.


In 1961, the Soviets agreed to begin exploring for oil in Pakistan.

  • In 1963, the Soviet government loaned Pakistan 11 million pounds and it shifted from its previous open support for India over Kashmir to a neutral stance.
  • In April 1965, Ayub Khan paid an official visit to the Soviet Union and further agreements on trade and oil exploration were reached.
  • In January 1966, the Soviet Union hosted a peace conference between India and Pakistan at Tashkent.
  • In 1968, when the Americans decided to close their airbase at Peshawar, the Soviet Union began to supply arms to Pakistan.

However, at this point, relations with the Soviet Union worsened. The Soviet Government was not happy with the fact that Pakistan was accepting aid and arms from the USA as well from the Soviet Union.

4 relations with china

Relations with China improved greatly during the Ayub Khan Regime.

  • In 1962, Ayub Khan visited China, increasing friendship.
  • In March 1963, talks between China and Pakistan to settle their border dipute were successfully completed. In the settlement, the Chinese made more concessions to Pakistan than the Pakistanis.
  • In 1963, Pakistan and China announced a series of trade agreements. China grated Pakistan a $60 million interest free loan and soon became the world’s largest purchaser of Pakistani cotton.

In August 1963, PIA began regular flights to China, which helped to increase movement and trade between the two countries.

  • In 1964, China made a statement supporting Pakistan’s policy in Kashmir. In return, Pakistan supported China’s entry into the UN.
  • During the 1965 war with India, China supplied military aid to Pakistan and applied diplomatic pressure on India to prevent it from attacking Pakistani positions.
5 realtions with britain
  • Relations with Britain got strained during the Ayub Khan Regime when the British government made it clear that it did not feel bound through membership of the SEATO and CENTO pacts to support Pakistan in the 1965 war against India.
  • However, Britain played an important role during the 1965 tensions by engineering the agreement to resolve the diputes. The final agreement was signed by Pakistan at the Commonwealth Conference in London during June 1965.
  • Pakistan appreciated the fact that Britain had criticized India for crossing the international boundary on 6 September 1965, a criticism which had created uproar in India.
ayub khan s foreign policy conclusion
  • Ayub Khan wanted to develop balanced relations with all the major powers.
  • But his cultivation of China angered the US, which was providing more than 50% of Pakistan’s foreign aid.
  • At a time when his foreign policy and foreign aid were in crisis, Ayub Khan plunged Pakistan into the Indo-Pak War of 1965 which ended with grave consequences for Pakistan. The US ended all military and economic aid. After the war, economic aid was restored at a lower level but the ban on military aid continued.
  • Moreover, the war increased the socio-economic problems that had already started due to Ayub’s policies.
  • Therefore, Ayub Khan was not very successful in his foreign policy.
nida javed



elections 1965


  • Elections for the Presidency were to take place in January 1965. Ayub Khan was nominated by a new party, the Convention Muslim League, which he had helped form.
  • The opposition parties all agreed to support MohtarmaFatima Jinnah.


  • The opposition claimed that the voting had been rigged.
  • There were riots in Karachi and East Pakistan in which 20 people were killed.
political unrest and the downfall of ayub khan
  • After the 1965 war with India which had been provoked by Ayub’s government, Ayub told the people that Pakistan had won the war, but the Tashkent Treaty contained no reference to how the Kashmir issue should be solved.
  • AyubKhan sacked the Foreign Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who he blamed for the failings of the war. Bhutto now became a focal point for opposition to Ayub.
decade of development
  • By November 1968, Ayub Khan had become immensely unpopular with the masses.
  • The politicians and officials close to Ayub Khan suggested that a ‘A Decade of Development’ should be celebrated.
  • The main purpose behind the celebration was to attract people’s attention towards the achievements of his time in office by declaring his regime, ‘A Decade of Development’.
  • During the 1960s, the average annual growth rate was over 7%, which meant that gross national wealth quadrupled in ten years.
  • The economy was not just growing twice as well, it was also growing three times faster than that of India or any other country in South Asia.
  • During 1960-65, manufacturing output grew at 11.5% per annum.
  • During the same period, people’s incomes went up by an average of 14%.
  • Therefore, many international economic experts believed that Pakistan had finally managed to stop the circle of poverty.
criticism decade of development

The various reforms which he had initiated bounced back and did not work as he had foreseen.

  • In 1968, the chief economist in the Planning Commission of Pakistan revealed that only 22 industrial families were controlling 66% of the country’s industrial assets and 80% of its insurance and banking services. This image proved politically very damaging to Ayub Khan.
  • Most of the new wealth was concentrated in West Pakistan which provided a pretext for the hostility to flare up in East Pakistan.
  • Planning and development efforts increased public sector investment rate in East Pakistan more than that of West Pakistan but private investment continued to lag behind substantially.

Many Pakistanis saw little improvement in their standard of living. Most of the benefits went directly to those directly involved as owners, investors or managers in the businesses that were expanding.

  • Due to one of the highest population growth rates in the world, 2.2%:

People were angry that millions of rupees were spent on the celebrations of the Decade of Development for one whole year, at a time when they were experiencing economic difficulties.

  • The Third Year Plan also could not be implemented as taxes were increased, prices went up and there were many shortages.

Therefore, the ‘Decade of Development’ is also referred to as the ‘Controversial Sixties’.

downfall of ayub khan

The celebrations of the Decade of Development led to further riots and protests.

  • Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party(1967) and Mujib-ur-Rehman’sAwami League became a serious threat to the President’s authority.
  • When Ayub Khan carried out widespread arrests, including Bhutto, there were more protests, which spread to East Pakistan.
  • On a visit to Peshawar, Ayub Khan became the target of a failed assassination attempt.
  • Throughout 1968, the protests and riots were impossible to stop. In October 1968, there were student protests all over Pakistan. Bhutto had captured the public mood in West Pakistan with his campaign for ‘Islamic Socialism’.
  • In January 1969, eight of the opposing parties formed the Democratic Action Committee. They wanted proper elections, the lifting of emergency powers and autonomy for East Pakistan.

On 17 February 1969, Ayub Khan withdrew the emergency powers and released many political prisoners.

  • But he had done too little too late.
  • The opposition rapidly gained support while he and his party lost it.
  • By March, Ayub Khan realized that he did not have enough support to stay in power.
  • On 25 March 1969, he resigned. But he did not call for new elections to choose the new President. Instead, he handed over power to the army and for the second time in its short history, Pakistan experienced martial law.
maria anwer1

Maria Anwer


  • Dramatic turnaround in investment and growth in both East and West Pakistan.
  • Serious disruption by the 1965 war with India.
  • High dependence on foreign aid.
  • Concentration mostly in West Pakistan.
  • Growing economic disparity and insufficient political participation.

Despite these economic policy failures and accusations of presiding over a regime run on ‘crony capitalism’, the Ayub era was an exceptionally successful period of economic management and a ‘success’ by whatever criteria were available at that time to measure success.

  • More democratic institutions.
  • The Constitution should also have given more power to democracy.
  • Proper system of check and balance of the private institutions.
  • Quality control, provision of infrastructure like communications and energy, and direct incentives to exporters.

More attention to the low-income sector.

  • Alterations to the modernization policy.
  • Effective land reforms.
  • Credit more accessible to the poor farmers.
  • No war against India.
  • No rigging in elections.

Books and Articles

  • Pakistan-A Historical And Contemporary Look By FarooqNaseemBajwa.
  • Introduction To Pakistan Studies By M. IkramRabbani
  • The History and Culture of Pakistan By Nigel Kelly
  • Pakistan-History, Culture and Government By Nigel Smith
  • Issues In Pakistan Economy By S. Akbar Zaidi
  • The Green Revolution and the Gene Revolution in Pakistan: Policy Implications by Robert E. Evenson
  • Forced Modernization and Public Policy: A Case Study of Ayub Khan Era (1958-69) By Sarfraz Husain Ansari

Web Sites