Maria Anwer. BB-11-01. AYUB KHAN REGIME. (1958-1969). Military Career. A ppointed as the first Pakistani Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army by Liaquat Ali Khan in 1951.
80,000 elected Basic Democrats would also form the Electoral College for the election of the President and members of the Central and Provincial Legislatures.
The Constitution upset the people of East Pakistan. Various steps were taken for them:
This produced instant reaction among the small provinces and regional parties of Bengal. They started agitation against Ayub’s regime to force him to dissolve One Unit.
The National Assembly passed a number of controversial bills during its life.
Growth in agriculture:
So, the Green Revolution of Pakistan was produced by the farmers who owned between 50 and 100 acres, almost all of them in Punjab. The Green Revolution has therefore been called and ‘Elite Farmer Strategy’.
In February 1959, the Government announced a new industrial policy of “gradual liberalization of economy” to pave way for smooth industrial growth.
Criticism Of Industrial Reforms
More than 40% of the imports of the government were financed by the foreign aid component, which was 6% of GDP in 1964/5.
Shortly after taking power, the government fixed the price of
to stop traders from making too much profit at the expense of the people.
The religious sections of the society severely resisted the modernization agenda.
After the Report of the Commission on National Education whichidentified the importance of education as an investment in national growth:
An extensive literacy program was started, building new schools and colleges.
Ayub’sgovernment decided to build a new capital because:
Despite these incidents, Ayub Khan was generally considered the architect of good relations between the USA and Pakistan.
The agreement also detailed transitional arrangements, new irrigation and hydroelectric power works, and the waterlogging and salinity problems in Pakistan's Punjab.
AyubKhan had to deal with the war between India and Pakistan that took place in 1965, which caused further problems for his regime.
Pakistan started Operation Gibraltar. The Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered and the operation ended in a complete failure.
India crossed the International Border on the Western front on 6 September, marking an official beginning of the war.
During the Ayub Khan Regime, relations deteriorated and improved again due to several events.
However, relations improved gradually after 1960.
However, at this point, relations with the Soviet Union worsened. The Soviet Government was not happy with the fact that Pakistan was accepting aid and arms from the USA as well from the Soviet Union.
Relations with China improved greatly during the Ayub Khan Regime.
In August 1963, PIA began regular flights to China, which helped to increase movement and trade between the two countries.
The various reforms which he had initiated bounced back and did not work as he had foreseen.
Many Pakistanis saw little improvement in their standard of living. Most of the benefits went directly to those directly involved as owners, investors or managers in the businesses that were expanding.
People were angry that millions of rupees were spent on the celebrations of the Decade of Development for one whole year, at a time when they were experiencing economic difficulties.
Therefore, the ‘Decade of Development’ is also referred to as the ‘Controversial Sixties’.
The celebrations of the Decade of Development led to further riots and protests.
On 17 February 1969, Ayub Khan withdrew the emergency powers and released many political prisoners.
Despite these economic policy failures and accusations of presiding over a regime run on ‘crony capitalism’, the Ayub era was an exceptionally successful period of economic management and a ‘success’ by whatever criteria were available at that time to measure success.
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