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Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs. Child Care Today, Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs. A variety of early childhood programs are available that provide children with supervision, care, and education. Program directors have responsibilities to follow legal requirements.

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Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs


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    1. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs A variety of early childhood programs are available that provide children with supervision, care, and education. Program directors have responsibilities to • follow legal requirements. • hire and train qualified staff. • work with boards and parents to provide high-quality programs.

    2. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • philosophy • program goals • for-profit • nonprofit • program sponsors • license exempt • registration • accreditation criteria • terminate • subsidy • organizational chart • reference check • board • program governance • advisory board • governing board • financial management Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs

    3. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Types Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • The phrase early childhood program describes any situation in which children receive supervision, care, education, or special lessons by qualified people. • This care typically occurs outside the children’s homes. • The demand for such programs has grown over the last few decades.

    4. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Philosophy and Goals A program’s philosophy might state that it strives to provide a safe, developmentally appropriate environment for preschool and school-age children, with a focus on promoting a desire in each child to be a lifelong learner. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs philosophy The general beliefs, concepts, and attitudes a program has about how children learn.

    5. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Philosophy and Goals A child care center’s program goals might include the development of social skills, self-esteem, and responsibility. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs programgoals Basic skills, concepts, and attitudes to develop and encourage in children; the range of services to be provided.

    6. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Philosophy and Goals Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • The defining feature of any early childhood program is its program philosophy, or mission statement. • The philosophy describes how the program should serve and educate children and involve parents.

    7. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Philosophy and Goals Sample Program Philosophy Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Children need hands-on learning experiences. • Children have different learning and developmental levels. • Classroom design should encourage exploration. • Children need independent and group activities. • Children’s interests and needs should guide learning activities. • Activities should encourage physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development. • Activities should encourage problem solving and creativity. • Parent involvement enhances children’s overall development.

    8. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs For-Profit and Nonprofit Programs KinderCare® is an example of a for-profit child care business. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs for-profit Designed to bring in more income than is spent on services.

    9. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs For-Profit and Nonprofit Programs Money earned by a nonprofit program pays expenses before going into savings for future use. nonprofit There are no owners or stockholders who receive money from the program’s income. 9

    10. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs For-Profit and Nonprofit Programs Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • For-profit programs bring in more income than they spend on their services. • The extra money goes to the owners or stockholders. • For-profit programs are owned by individuals or large investor-owned or company-owned businesses. • Money earned by a nonprofit program goes back into the budget or into savings.

    11. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Quality The following areas require quality programming: Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Program philosophy and goals • Knowledge of child development and appropriate guidance • Basic health, safety, and nutrition • Appropriate environment • Developmentally appropriate curriculum and practices • Activities, records, reports, and evaluations • Organized daily schedule • Family involvement • Ongoing staff training

    12. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Program philosophies and goals vary according to the individual purposes of the program sponsors. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs programsponsors Specific groups that fund or manage an early childhood program.

    13. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Centers Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Enroll children whose parents or guardians work or attend school. • Typically open 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. • Some operate evenings or 24 hours a day. • Provide learning activities, active play, meals, snacks, and nap time. • Generally serve children 6 weeks to 12 years.

    14. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Family Child Care Homes • provide private child care services offered by individuals in their own homes. Before- and After-School Child Care • offer care for school-age children before and after school. Preschools and Nursery Schools • emphasize learning skills and social development for children three to five years of age. • provide extra experiences prior to formal education.

    15. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Public School Prekindergarten • provides enrichment activities to help children succeed in elementary school. • usually operates only during the school year. Employer-Sponsored Centers • offered by businesses to employees on or near the work site. In-Home Child Care • Some parents or guardians employ nannies or host au pairs to provide child care in their own homes.

    16. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Intergenerational Care Centers • offer daytime care for young children and older adults. • provide beneficial interaction between children and older adults. Child Care for Mildly Ill Children • staffed with early childhood professionals and nurses while children get well. • slower paced and provide more rest time.

    17. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Back-Up Child Care Centers • provide short-term care when a working parent’s regular child care option is interrupted. Head Start Preschools and Child Care Centers • prepare economically disadvantaged preschoolers for school success. • offer free education, health, dental, and nutrition services.

    18. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Montessori Preschools • encourage independent learning, learning by doing, and learning through the senses. • use educational materials designed to help children master tasks in sequence. Preschools and Child Care for Children with Special Needs • provide appropriate care for children with very complicated disabilities.

    19. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Crisis Nurseries • 24-hour services for overstressed parents who feel at risk of abusing their children. • may care for children for up to three days while parents seek counseling. Parent Cooperatives • Child care professionals, teachers, and parents work together to influence philosophy and goals.

    20. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Options Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Laboratory Schools • serve as training sites for students studying for careers in child development. • often provide care, education, and guidance based on the latest research and methods. Kindergarten • offers a developmentally appropriate curriculum for children five to six years of age.

    21. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Licensing, Registration, and Legal Duties Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Early childhood programs must meet specific legal requirements before they are allowed to operate. • Local and state laws and regulations vary from state to state.

    22. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Licensing and Registration Laws Early childhood programs associated with parochial schools that are part of places of worship can be licenseexempt. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs licenseexempt Certain programs that are not required to obtain licenses to operate legally in their states.

    23. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Licensing and Registration Laws Some states require registration to operate a child care center instead of a formal program license. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs registration Requirement that a care provider notify city or state officials in writing of the program’s name, address, telephone number, and intention to provide services.

    24. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Licensing and Registration Laws Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • State licensing laws identify programs that must meet minimum requirements for legal operation. • Meeting a state’s licensing laws for operation is a mandatory requirement, not a program choice. • The Department of Human Services or the Department of Children and Family Services enforces licensing laws.

    25. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Licensing and Registration Laws Early Childhood Licensing Requirements Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Health, safety, and nutrition requirements • Maximum group size of children by age • Square footage of space per child for indoor and outdoor areas • Minimum staff qualifications and in-service training requirements • Minimum equipment and supplies for each classroom • Recommended classroom ratios of teachers to children

    26. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Legal Duties for Early ChildhoodProfessionals Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Enrollment Application Legalities • Each state’s licensing laws specify the minimum amount of information to be included in a program’s application form. Nonbiased Enrollment Practices • Programs must offer enrollment services on an equal-opportunity basis.

    27. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Legal Duties for Early ChildhoodProfessionals Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Ensuring Privacy and Confidentiality • Before information about a child can be shared with nonprogram staff, written permission from a legal parent or guardian must be obtained. Fee Agreement Contracts • The written contract states the days and hours of a child’s attendance, costs for services, and payment procedures.

    28. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Compliance with Laws Child care professionals have a legal responsibility to respond if laws are being ignored or incorrectly followed. Violations that require reporting: Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Failure to maintain legal records or confidentiality • Illegal financial practices • Biased, discriminatory practices • Licensing and accreditation violations • Health, safety, and fire-code violations • Suspected abuse and neglect

    29. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Accreditation Criteria Programs that are committed to high-quality services work hard to meet as many accreditationcriteria as possible. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs accreditationcriteria A set of standards that represents high-quality, developmentally appropriate programs.

    30. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Accreditation Criteria Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Complying with accreditation criteria is voluntary. • Accreditation is awarded from a professional organization to assure that the program operates according to recognized professional practices. • To ensure that programs maintain high quality, they must be periodically reaccredited.

    31. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Managing Program Services • The director sets the tone for the staff’s professional performance. • Directors work with teachers to plan, apply, and evaluate learning programs and activities based on the program’s goals and philosophy. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs

    32. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Staff directors work to maintain the best staff possible. • They recruit, interview, and hire the best-qualified employees. • Age, education, and work-experience requirements vary according to positions.

    33. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision Most directors hire people to fill these positions: Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Assistant director • Teaching staff and substitutes • Food service staff • Transportation staff • Custodial and grounds crew • Health care staff • Family involvement coordinator • Curriculum coordinator

    34. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision A staff director’s job description would allow him or her to hire or terminate employees, but a teacher’s job description would not include that responsibility. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs terminate To discontinue someone’s employment.

    35. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision An organizationalchart helps staff know whom they should inform about problems, solutions, or suggestions for program activities. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs organizationalchart An organized staffing plan that identifies supervisors for specific positions.

    36. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision Staff Qualifications Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Programs identify and describe responsibilities for each staff member. • Every staff position has a job description. Staff Organization • Quality programs have a specific plan for staffing. • Directors create work schedules and inform each staff member of his or her specific work hours.

    37. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision Directors conduct referencechecks on potential employees to make sure they hire only the best-qualified candidates. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs referencechecks Contacting people who know a job applicant’s character, job performance, and employment skills.

    38. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision Screening Staff Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Work history • Educational background • Résumé • Reference checks • Medical tests • Criminal background checks

    39. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Staff Recruitment and Supervision Staff Development Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Personnel policies and handbooks • In-service training • Continuing education • Performance evaluation

    40. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Quality Facilities Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • A quality facility creates a nurturing environment. • Its design should support the program philosophy and goals. • Good facilities are comfortable and useful for staff, clients, and clients’ family members. • Licensing laws set minimum standards that facilities must meet.

    41. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance Program operations can also be influenced by a board, the program sponsor, and the director. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs board A group of individuals who support the program’s purpose but are not employed by the program.

    42. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance Programgovernance can be a cooperative effort between the program sponsor and a director. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs programgovernance The process by which a director and a board make decisions about a program’s policies and procedures.

    43. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance An advisoryboard has limited decision-making power. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs advisoryboard A board that only gives directors recommendations on decisions to be made.

    44. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance The governingboard tells directors what actions to take and has final authority for decisions. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs governingboard A board that has full decision-making power.

    45. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance Organizational Structure Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Advisory Boards and Governing Boards • All boards assign leadership positions. • Board Responsibilities • Ensure that policies and procedures are fair. • Board Committees • Groups that conduct work in a timely manner.

    46. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance Governance Handbooks Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Constitution and By-laws • states the program’s purpose and establishes conduct rules for the board • Governance Handbook • lists all of a program’s policies and procedures • Personnel Handbook • states personnel policies

    47. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Program Governance Administration Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Sponsors (those who provide funding) usually have the final say in administration decisions. • Directors can help sponsors determine if program goals are being met.

    48. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs ClientServices Program Enrollment Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Directors attract and maintain steady enrollment according to capacity. • Directors must maintain good relationships with the family to meet the child’s needs and family’s expectations.

    49. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Client Services Referrals may be in response to a question about applying for a state’s child care subsidy or financial assistance program. Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs subsidy A grant or gift of money from a government to a private company, organization, or charity to help it function.

    50. Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs Client Services Parent or Family Handbooks Child Care Today,Chapter 10: Quality Early Childhood Programs • Most states require programs to inform parents of policies and procedures in writing. Family Involvement • Talk to family members at drop-off and pickup times; newsletters; progress reports, Web sites, e-mail; conferences; anytime visits. Community Referrals • Good directors are well acquainted with community services.