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  1. Radio, Millimeter and Submillimeter Planning Group Martha P. Haynes (Cornell University) on behalf of the RMSPG Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee May 16, 2005

  2. Premise: Recommendations as outlined in: • Astro & Astrophys in the New Millenium • From the Sun to the Earth – And Beyond • Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos • New Frontiers in the Solar System • Objective: Update/Implementation Plan • Membership: Same as 2000 AASC Radio/Submm Panel R*M*S Planning Group • Martha Haynes, Cornell/NAIC • Geoff Blake, Caltech • Don Campbell, Cornell • John Carlstrom, Chicago • Neal Evans, Texas • Jackie Hewitt, MIT • Ken Kellermann, NRAO • Alan Marscher, BU • Jim Moran, Harvard • Steve Myers, NRAO • Mark Reid, SAO • Jack Welch, Berkeley Site includes a compilation of RMS facilities • A community “volunteer” effort • No special interaction with AUI/NRAO director

  3. Progress towards AANM Initiatives New Ground Based Initiatives • Prior Decade • ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) • Major Initiatives • EVLA (Expanded Very Large Array) • Moderate Initiatives • SKA (Square Kilometer Array) Technology • CARMA (Combined Array for Research in mm Astronomy) • FASR (Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope) • SPT (South Pole Telescope) • Small Initiatives • “LOFAR” (Low Frequency Array) • CMB experiments • Numerous (ACBAR, CBI, CAPMAP, DASI, SZA, etc)

  4. Progress towards AANM Initiatives New Ground Based Initiatives • Prior Decade • ALMA: under construction • Major Initiatives • EVLA: Phase I underway; Phase II under review • Moderate Initiatives • SKA: US effort limited by lack of NSF funding • CARMA: under construction • FASR: proposal for D&D about to be submitted • SPT: under construction • Small Initiatives • “LOFAR”: Several initiatives underway/pending • CMB experiments • Numerous, on-going (TFCR)

  5. RMS Roadmap • Elements: • Complete and support ALMA • Complete and support EVLA • Exploit those investments via other unique facilities • Pursue aggressively the SKA concept as the next generation radio telescope • Develop the new technologies required for new science • Maintain competitive strength • Train the next generation

  6. ALMA: Imaging Origins Under construction; expected completion in 2012 • Exploit the ALMA investment pre-ALMA: • CARMA: pathfinder for ALMA science and development • Wide area survey instruments • Redshift machines • Support ALMA beginning with partial array operations in 2008 • Complement ALMA in ALMA era with unique capabilities

  7. Exploiting the ALMA Investment Full return on the US investment in ALMA requires additional capabilities at these same wavelengths currently provided by UROs, GBT and SMA. • Fast survey capabilities • - Broad bandwidth incoherent detectors (mapping speed) • Redshifts for large numbers of dusty objects • Blind molecular searches over wide areas • Unique instantaneous spatial dynamic range and image fidelity of CARMA’s hybrid array • Legacy surveys especially of Galactic plane (north and south)

  8. EVLA: Revolutionized Capabilities Multiply by at least 10X the capabilities of the current VLA • Phase I: underway; completion in 2012 • Funded out of AST (not MREFC) • Contributions from Canada and Mexico • Phase II: proposal submitted; “ready to go”

  9. The Most Distant Quasar Walter et al. 2003 • Optical Image • VLA image of CO from the first known star formation • Redshifted to 46 GHz • Artist’s conception of disk of molecules and dust

  10. EVLA: Resolving Cosmic Evolution Resolution better than 160 light years anywhere in the universe and 3 AU at Orion • AU-scale images of accretion disks and their connection to outflow regions around massive stars • Resolve dusty cores of ULIRGs and submm galaxies: AGN or starbursts • Evolution of GRB’s, SNe, etc Combine EVLA + VLBA for full image fidelity EVLA is a pathfinder for high frequency SKA, technologically and scientifically

  11. VLBA/HSA: sub-mJy at sub-mas • - Time critical images of motions and source evolution • - Unparalleled astrometry (microarcsec accuracy) • GLAST/VLBA survey: both groundwork for the mission and followup • Dark matter density in core of lensing galaxies • Pulsar and maser parallaxes for MW structure • Maser motions around supermassive black holes

  12. Square Kilometer Array • The SKA aims to be the next generation radio telescope. • The SKA is an international project. • The SKA requires revolutionary technology development. • Science potential is thrilling: • Thermal imaging at 0.15 AU resolution out to 150 pc • Thousands of millisec pulsars forming a “timing array” to detect gravitational waves • A billion rotation measures: evolution of magnetic fields, connection to structure formation • Cosmic evolution of HI • …. Plus much more!

  13. International SKA Timeline

  14. Arecibo: Pathfinder for the SKA Exploit AO’s HIGH SENSITIVITY and RADAR capability • Surveys with ALFA: galactic and extragalactic • Pulsar surveys and timing: tests of GR • Statistical characterization of continuum transients • High Sensitivity Array for VLBI: time domain, mJy VLBI • Solar System radar: NEAs, planetary surfaces, rings • SKA testbed: wide bandwidth (2-11 GHz) focal plane array • Partnerships for surveys, instrumentation, software etc.

  15. GBT: Pathfinder for EVLA, SKA, ALMA Exploit the GBT’s unique characteristics: • Beam-forming array: Galactic HI • Penn Array: pathfinder for SZ, dust • Heterodyne array: CO, HCN, HCO+ in star forming regions • Multibeam at 30 GHz: blind high-z CO • “Finder” for EVLA, ALMA • Steerability: globular cluster pulsars • High frequency VLBI: H20 masers • Bi-static radar: NEA’s, Titan

  16. Ground-based CMB Experiments • Direct observations of the CMB lie uniquely in the domain of RMS astronomy. • Ground based experiments probe CMB anisotropy and polarization on different scales and thus complement results from space missions. • RMS surveys critical for foreground determination. • SPT wil map CMB/SZA. Task Force on CMB Research

  17. Solar Radio Astronomy FASR Frequency Agile Solar Radio Telescope • FASR was endorsed by the 2000 AASC as well as the Solar and Space Physics equivalent “From the Sun to the Earth - and Beyond”. • A proposal to conduct D&D on FASR will be submitted to NSF GEO/ATM. • Dedicated to solar “weather”, FASR will be a data machine not a PI facility.

  18. “LOFAR” • Dutch pursuing low frequency array on their own (= LOFAR) • Low frequency regime (< 300 MHz) largely unexplored • Science exciting • “Dark Ages” neutral hydrogen • First supermassive blackholes • Continuum transients • Solar/ionospheric phenomena • Modest investment in next 3-5 years : • Detection of neutral hydrogen during the “Dark Ages” • Technology development towards major facility

  19. RMS Roadmap: ALMA • Complete and support ALMA • Exploit that investment via other unique facilities • Develop new technologies • Pre-ALMA era: - CARMA as a pathfinder for ALMA science • - Full survey of Galactic plane in key dust and molecular tracers • - Wide area surveys, z-machines • - Submm interferometry (SMA + CSO) • ALMA era: - CARMA as a pathfinder for ALMA development • - Unique CARMA science niche • - Wide area complements • FCRAO LMT • CSO CCAT

  20. RMS Roadmap: The EVLA (and Beyond) • Complete and support EVLA • Exploit that investment via other unique facilities • Pursue aggressively the SKA concept as the next generation radio telescope • The EVLA offers a huge increase in capability over the existing VLA: a new “VLA”! • The EVLA+VLBA combination provides high fidelity imaging on all spatial scales for the first time. • The VLBA+AO+GBT+phased VLA = HSA for precision astronomy and studies of faint sources. • The EVLA is a critical step to the SKA as the next generation radio telescope. • AO, GBT, ATA, MWA and LWA will likewise serve as SKA testbeds and demonstrators.

  21. Towards the SKA: Technology Pathway RMS Roadmap

  22. RMS Roadmap Towards the SKA: Science Pathway Plus connections to ALMA, JWST, GSMT, etc

  23. The RMS Roadmap Follows the Decadal Survey Strategy • Prior Decade • ALMA • Major Initiatives • EVLA • Moderate Initiatives • SKA • CARMA • FASR • SPT • Small Initiatives • “LOFAR” • CMB experiments • Numerous (ACBAR, CBI, CAPMAP, DASI) Driven by science Enabled by technology Maintains US strength

  24. Radio, Millimeter and Submillimeter (RMS) Facility Acronyms

  25. EVLA I : • First phase of EVLA project • Begun 2001; Expected completion 2012 • Modernize existing facility: correlator, receivers, software • EVLA II • 2nd phase of EVLA project • Proposal submitted 2004; under review • Increase angular resolution by 10X with additional antennas spread throughout New Mexico • eVLBI: (Near) real-time VLBI imaging by transmission of data over internet to central correlator (vs physical shipment of disks) • e2e: “End-to-end” development of software tools for users to aid from proposal submission to observations to data reduction • HSA: High Sensitivity Array (VLBA + VLA + GBT + Arecibo) • Large N/Small D: Large number of small diameter dishes • NAIC: National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center • NMA: New Mexico Array • NRAO: National Radio Astronomy Observatory • RMS: Radio, Millimeter and Submillimeter More R*M*S Acronyms