Lesbia. Stage 45 Catullus. Meter and Scansion More about the Subjunctive More about Relative Pronouns. Meter and Scansion. Scansion: analysis of verse into metrical patterns
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Lesbia Stage 45 Catullus • Meter and Scansion • More about the Subjunctive • More about Relative Pronouns
Meter and Scansion • Scansion: analysis of verse into metrical patterns • Meter: The measured arrangement of words in poetry, as by accentual rhythm, syllabic quantity, or the number of syllables in a line • Three Primary Meters: • Hendecasyllabic (hen-dek-uh-si-LAB-ik) • Elegiac Couplet • Dactylic Hexameter
Meter and Scansion • English verse derives its rhythm from the natural stress accent of the English language. • Latin verse derives its rhythm from the length of time taken to pronounce each syllable. The rhythm depends on the succession of long and short syllables, and to a lesser degree, the word accent. • Short syllables are marked “ ̮” and long syllables are marked“ __ ” . In pronunciation, long syllables are held twice as long as short syllables. • Ex. audiāmus contains 4 syllables or sound units • au-di-ā-mus
Meter and Scansion • The number of syllables in a Latin word equals the number of vowels or diphthongs (two vowels pronounced together – ae, au, oe). In a syllable a vowel may be by itself or have a consonant(s) before or after it. • If a vowel is marked with a macron or contains a diphthong, then its syllable is long. The syllable is said to be long by nature. *see handout “rules to scan…” • Although diphthongs form long syllables, there are exceptions. If there are 3 vowels in a row and there is a macron over one of the vowels, it is not part of the diphthong. Ex. Diēî has two macrons & NO diphthongs. It has 3 syllables. • If a vowel has two or more consonants between itself and the next vowel, then its syllable is long. The syllable is said to be long by position. However, for the purpose of scansion, the letter x and sometimes z counts as two consonants. The digraphs (two-letter combinations) ch, ph, th, qu, and sometimes gu and su count as single consonants.
Meter and Scansion • 3 Basic Latin Rhythmic Patterns with each carrying its own pattern composed of a set number of bars (I) or feet. • Dactylic Foot = (__ ̮ ̮) is very common in Latin poetry. It is a long syllable follow by two short syllables. It is called a “dactyl”. • Spondaic Foot = (__ __) It is a long syllable followed by another long syllable, except that at the end of a line, any syllable can be long or short. It is called a “spondee”. • Trochaic Foot = (__ ̮) It is a long syllable followed by a short syllable. It is called a “trochee”.
Dactylic Hexameter • There are six feet in this verse. Each verse in this meter follows this pattern with some few substitutions as indicated below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 • -u u -u u -u u -u u -u u -u -- -- -- -- (-- ) -- (spondees can be substituted for dactyls as shown) • Besides a spondee (- -), the first foot can contain a trochee (-u ).
Dactylic Hexameter • Ex. tūmmĭhĭI caērŭlĕIūssūpI rā căpŭtIādstĭtĭtIīmbĕr
Hendecasyllabic (hen-dek-uh-si-LAB-ik) • This line is an arrangement of 11 syllables within 5 feet. • Each verse in this meter follows this pattern with some few substitutions, as indicated below: 1 2 3 4 5 • -u -u u -u -u -u -- oru- -- • Besides a spondee (- -), the first foot can contain a iamb (u-).
Hendecasyllabic (hen-dek-uh-si-LAB-ik) • Mark the short & long vowels of the example. • Pās-sērImōr-tŭ-ŭsIēstmĕ- Iaēpŭ- Iēl-laē • Now do the remaining 2 lines of the verse. The other 3 lines are homework.
Elegiac Couplet • The elegiac couplet is comprised of 2 lines, a dactylic hexameter alternating with a pentameter line, which is actually the first two and a half feet of a hexameter twice. • To determine the rhythmic pattern of an elegiac couplet, divide it into its component feet as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Line 1 -u uI -u uI -u uI -u uI -u uI -u -- -- -- -- -- Line 2 -u uI -u uI - II -u uI -u uI u -- -- -
Elegiac Couplet • Mark the short & long vowels of the example. • ĀccĭpĕIfrātērInōmūlItūmmāInāntǐăIflētū ātqu(e) īnIpērpĕtŭIūm, II frātĕr, ăIv(ē) ātquĕ văIlē. • Now do the remaining lines for homework.
More About the Subjunctive:the Hortatory Subjunctive • Study the following examples: • Vivāmus atque amēmus! • Let us live and let us love! • Nē dēspērēmus! • Let usnot despair! • Aut vincāmus aut vincāmur! • Let useither conquer or be conquered!
More About the Subjunctive: the Hortatory Subjunctive • In the previous sentences, the speaker is ordering or encouraging one or more people to do something. • The 1st person plural form (we) is used, and the verb is in the present tense of the subjunctive. This is known as the hortatory subjunctive.
More About the Subjunctive: the Hortatory Subjunctive • Further examples: • In mediam pugnam ruāmus! • Let us rush into the middle of the fight! • Nē haesitēmus! • Let us not hesitate!
More About the Subjunctive: the Hortatory Subjunctive • Further examples: • Socios nostros adiuvēmus. • Let us help our friends. • opus perficiāmus. • Let us complete the work/finish the job. • Gaudeāmus igitur, iuvenes dum sumus. • Let us rejoice while we are young (men). • Flammas exstinguere conēmur! • Let us put out the flames!
More About the Subjunctive: the Jussive Subjunctive • The subjunctive can also be used in a 3rd person form of the verb (he, she, it, they). This is known as the jussive subjunctive. • Omnes captivi interficiāntur! • Let all the prisoners be killed! Or • All the prisoners are to be killed! • Nē respiāt! • Let him not look back! Or • He is not to look back.
More About the Subjunctive: the Jussive Subjunctive • Further examples: • Statim redeāt! • Lethimreturn at once! • Sit amicitia inter nos et vos. • Let there be friendship between you and us. • Primum taurus sacrificētur; deinde preces Iovi adhibeāntur. • Let the first bull be sacrificed; then let the prayers be offered to Jove.
More About the Subjunctive: the Jussive Subjunctive • Occasionally, this subjunctive is used in a 2nd person command (you): • Spem longam resecēs! • You should cut short long hope! • However the imperative is far more common in Latin.
More About the Subjunctive: the Deliberative Subjunctive • When a speaker is wondering what do, a deliberative question is asked by employing the “deliberative subjunctive”. • Study the following examples: • Quid faciām? • What am I to do? • Qua teregionerequirām? • In what region am I to search for you? • Utrumcaptivosliberemus an interficiāmus? • Should we free the prisoners or kill them?
Quiz - What is the Use of the Subjunctive?deliberative, hortatory, jussive 3rd pers., jussive 2nd pers. • Statim discedamus. • Let us depart at once. hortatory • Desinas queri. • You must stop your complaining. jussive 2nd pers. • Quo fugiam? • Where should I go? deliberative • Fiat lux! • Let there be light! jussive 3rd pers.,
Quiz - What is the Use of the Subjunctive?deliberative, hortatory, jussive 3rd pers., jussive 2nd pers. • Quid cogitem? • What should I think? deliberative • Laetus sis! • You should be happy! jussive 2nd pers. • Libros legant! • Let them read books! jussive 3rd pers.,
More About Relative Pronouns • You have met sentences in which forms of the pronoun is are used as antecedents of the relative pronoun quī: • Is quīnuperservuseratnuncdivitissimus est. • He who was recently a slave is now extremely rich. • Id quod mihinarravistinumquampatefaciam. • That which you have told me I shall never reveal. Or • I shall never reveal what you have told me. • Dominus eōspūnietquīpecūniamāmmiserunt. • The master punished those who lost the money.
More About Relative Pronouns • Practice: • Id quod dicisverum est. • That which you say is true. • Is quīregemvulneravitceleriter fugit. • He who wounded the king fled quickly. • Nullumpraemiumdabitureīsquīofficiumneglegunt. • No reward will be given to them who neglected their duty.
More About Relative Pronouns • You have also met sentences where the antecedent comes after the relative clause: • quod potuimus, idfēcimus. • That which we could do, we did. Or • We did what we could do. • Quod saeperogavisti, ecce! Id tibidō. • Look, I am giving to you what you have often asked for.
More About Relative Pronouns • You have also met sentences where the antecedent is omitted completely: • Quod mulierdīcitamantī, in vēntoscribereoportet. • What a woman says to a lover should be written on the wind. • Quīnumquamtimetstultus est. • He who never fears is a fool. • Quīspeciemamīcitiaepraebentnōnsemperfidēlēssunt. • Those who put on an appearance of friendship are not always friends.