Apollo 13. By:Shaniecia Muldrew. Date of launch. Saturday, April 11 1970 at 13:13 cst. Crew Members . James A. Lovell,Jr John L.Swigert,Jr Fred W.Haise,Jr. Purpose of Mission.
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The Apollo 13 mission was to explore the Fra Mauro formation, or Fra Mauro highlands, named after the 80-kilometer-diameter Fra Mauro crater located within it. It is a widespread, hilly geological (or selenological) area thought to be composed of ejecta from the impact that formed Mare Imbrium.
The initial malfunction began during the second-stage boost. The center engine shut off 120 seconds earlier to avoid a collision with the pogo oscillations. The 16 hertz, 68g vibrations resulted in flexing the frame of thrust by 76 mm. The other four outboard engines were made to burn longer and this caused pressure fluctuations and eventually an engine shutdown. The crew used a helium gas reservoir to dampen the pressure oscillations, but at a distance of 321,860 kilometers from Earth, an oxygen tank exploded. The damaged insulation resulted in a fire and the tank dome failed. The crew used the moon's gravity to return to Earth.
Facts about Apollo 13 highlight the mission parameters of the launch, with readings of CM 28,945 kg; LM 15,235 kg mass; perigee and apogee of 181.5 km and 185.6 km, respectively and an inclination of 33.5°.
Though Ken Mattingly was originally supposed to pilot the command module, he succumbed to rubella or German measles exposure. Mattingly was replaced by John L. Swigert just 48 hours prior to the launch. Laboratory tests later revealed that Mattingly had not contracted rubella.
NASA's Apollo 13 mission was primarily to explore the Fra Mauro formation on the moon. This study of the widespread, hilly selenological region cost $4.4 billion. However, after the abortion of the mission, the study was then taken up by the crew aboard the Apollo 14.
Apollo 13 was originally set on a free return trajectory. This would have enabled the crew to benefit from an automatic return to earth, without the need for engine firing. However, the desired Fra Mauro landing required the elimination of this system. Nevertheless, the crew actually performed the free return trajectory with the help of the descent propulsion system.