Preparing for E ffective Argumentation. What’s the connection?. Emotional Appeals are often employed in propaganda Logical Fallacies are often present in those appeals Positive or negative connotation? TECHNIQUE. Aristotle’s Appeals .
PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Preparing for E ffective Argumentation' - fritz
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Assent or dissent to a statement or an argument is sought on the basis of an irrelevant appeal to pity. In other words, pity, or the related emotion is not the subject or the conclusion of the argument.
Example: Oh, Officer, There's no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.
When a well-known figure is used as supporting evidence for a statement’s validity, the hope is that merely by association with the person's name, the idea will be accepted. The strategy is a fallacious argument because the person may not be an expert on the subject in question or there is no evidence that shows that the well-known figure is in support of the proposed statement.
Example: Tim Tebow takes additional vitamin C tablets, which he swears keeps him healthy.
This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either.
Example: If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.
Appeal to force is committed when the arguer threatens (even implicitly) that some harm will come to the persuadee unless the persuadee accepts the conclusion. It is a fallacy if the harmful circumstances are not related to the topic of the conclusion of argument.
Dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion.
The systematic effortto manipulate other people’s beliefs, attitudes, or actions by means of symbols (words, gestures, banners, monuments, music, clothing, insignia, hairstyles, designs on coins and postage stamps, and so forth).
In The Fine Art of Propaganda, the IPA stated that "It is essential in a democratic society that young people and adults learn how to think, learn how to make up their minds. They must learn how to think independently, and they must learn how to think together. They must come to conclusions, but at the same time they must recognize the right of other men to come to opposite conclusions. So far as individuals are concerned, the art of democracy is the art of thinking and discussing independently together."
The name-calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence.
Example: Hitler did this when he said, “Jews are swine.”
The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. While Name Calling seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, the Glittering Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence.
We believe in, fight for, live by virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas. Such words include civilization, good, right, democracy, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, medicine, health, and love.
Giving the audience a reason to laugh or to be entertained by clever use of visuals or language.
Examples: Geico commercials (so easy, a caveman can do it…NOT the gecko…let’s be honest, he’s NOT funny…in fact, I’d like to motion that he be removed from their commercials…he makes me want to buy Geico LESS….)