JAPANESE MANAGEMENT STYLE. WHAT ARE THE KEY ELEMENTS?. Centralized management control Strong head office/subsidiary manager interpersonal relations Multiple locations Business strategy: Single product focus Minimize costs of production
than firms from other countries
In the early 1970s Taguchi developed the concept of the "Quality Loss Function" and by the end of that decade was highly acclaimed in his own country.It was not until 1980 that Western companies, particularly in the USA began to implement Taguchi's methods. The most notable of these being Xerox, Ford and ITT.Taguchi had made little impact in Europe until the Institute of Statisticians organised a conference in London in 1987 to discuss his methods
His method, poka-yoke or zero mistakes, stops the process whenever a defect occurs, defines the cause and prevents the recurring source of the defect. The method relies on a process of continuously monitoring potential sources of error. The machines used in this process are equipped with feedback instrumentation that identifies errors before they become defects, so remedial action can be taken
QUALITY DOES NOT MEAN MERELY QUALITY OF PRODUCT, SERVICE & WORK BUT QUALITY OF A COMPANY
WHAT IS QUALITY OF A COMPANY ?
MEANS MANAGEMENT WHICH ACTUALLY MEANS AN INTEGRATED AND CONTINUAL ACTIVITY TO RAISE QUALITY OF A COMPANY AT COMPANY-WIDE LEVEL.
TQM IS A COST EFFECTIVE SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATING THE CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS OF PEOPLE AT ALL LEVELS IN THE ORGANISATION TO DELIVER PRODUCTS AND SERVICES WHICH ENSURE CONSUMER SATISFACTION.
JIT: an integrated set of activities designed to
achieve high-volume production using minimal
inventories of raw materials, finished goods &
work in process.
they can often work on many projects at the same time;
they know how to allocate their time; and
they can multiply the results of their efforts through soft
factors such as emotional intelligence and trust.
♦ Organizations designed around the knowledge worker (instead of just machine capital) are thought to integrate the best of hierarchy, self-organization and networking rather than the worst. Each dictates a different communications and rewards system, and requires activation of knowledge-sharing and action learning.
Knowledge work, ranges from tasks performed by individual knowledge workers to global social networks. This framework spans every class of knowledge work that is being or is likely to be undertaken. There are seven levels or scales of knowledge work.
There is no universally accepted definition of CSR. Selected definitions by CSR organizations and actors include:
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
"Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large"
"CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society."
"CSR is a company’s commitment to operating in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner whilst balancing the interests of diverse stakeholders."
International Finance Corporation
"Corporate social responsibility is the commitment of businesses to contribute to sustainable economic development by working with employees, their families, the local community and society at large to improve their lives in ways that are good for business and for development”
European Commission "A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis."
THE SOCIAL COMMITMENT
NTPC believes in growth with a human face, and pursuing people-centred development. NTPC is a socially committed organisation and a socially responsible corporate citizen. It attaches great importance to discharging its overall social responsibilities to the community and the society at large where its projects and stations are located. In this regard Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) program becomes an area of sharp focus, a program that addresses people affected directly or indirectly in the wake of the projects undertaken by NTPC.Corporate Social Responsibility
The term 'corporate social responsibility' or sustainability is of relatively recent vintage. Not so the philosophy of social responsibility that underlines the Tata way of conducting its businesses, and the manner of its interactions with all the constituents that come under the canopy of corporate social responsibility. The multitude of initiatives the Group has nurtured from its earliest days flows from a wellspring of voluntary, as opposed to obligatory commitment