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Integrated Air Quality Management at City Level:. PUNE CITY Srinivas Bonala. City Profile. Population as 2001 census -2.697 Millions Density (persons/ sq km) -10,657 No of Households - 623,056 Average Household size - 4.42 Length of road network - 1000 kms

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City profile
City Profile

  • Population as 2001 census -2.697 Millions

  • Density (persons/ sq km) -10,657

  • No of Households - 623,056

  • Average Household size - 4.42

  • Length of road network - 1000 kms

  • Vehicles regd in PMA (2003) -1.354 Millions (PMC- 1.057 millions & PCMC - 0.297 Millions)

  • Avg. new veh. registrations/day- 400 (app.. 100,000 new per annum)

  • No of PMT buses - 847

City manifests problems such as
City Manifests Problems Such As……

  • increased traffic congestion,

  • reduced driving speed,

  • increased environmental pollution and

  • degradation of quality of life

  • Capacity of many intersections has been exhaustedThe central city is experiencing capacity gaps, parking problems, low-speed travel, increased congestion, environmental pollution leading to worsening air quality.

  • First corporation to prepare esr 1995 96 in india
    First Corporation to Prepare ESR ( 1995 -96) in India

    9th Report Covers Issues Pertaining to……

    • Air quality, land use, health, noise, housing, sanitation, greenery, slums, traffic&transport etc.,

    • It outlines PMC’s priorities for current year

    • Priorities are based on facts & figures, sometimes experiences

    • No emphasis on domestic, agricultural, construction and industrial pollution

    • Inadequate health impact data

    Air quality action plan 2002
    Air Quality Action Plan-2002

    • Court directives to prepare action plan to improve air quality with respect to vehicular pollution (May 2002)

    • Prepared action plan in consultation with RTO and MPCB

    • First attempt was made to estimate vehicular, industrial & domestic pollution

    • Road map on emission norms, fuel quality, steps to curb pollution from vehicles in use and control on registration of certain kind vehicles

    Hindrances faced
    Hindrances Faced….

    • Lack of validated and appropriate data

    • Ad hoc approach to air quality management plan and strategies

    • Multitude of agencies. Lack of effective coordination and communication.

    The pune approach
    The Pune Approach……

    Marching towards science based AQM model

    • Brainstorming workshop on of air quality management held on Sept. 12-13, 2001 in Delhi attended by rep from MoEF, CPCB, State PCBs, academic institutions and USEPA.

    • Pune selected as demo city for undertaking Urban Air Pollution Control Strategy Development by MoEF & USEPA.

    • USAEP is strategic partner to USEPA in implementing this project and work started in Pune in December 2002

    • PMC with facilitation from USAEP made Pune member of CAI-Asia in FY 2003

    • A core-group has been formed consisting of various stakeholders

      Core group has prepared a draft “Air Quality Management Programme

      (AQMP)” with the following building blocks:

    New urban air quality management initiative
    New Urban Air Quality Management Initiative

    • Start-to-finish control strategy development project in one city in India

      • 2-3 years duration

      • EPA provides training/assistance

      • Project tasks completed by groups in India

    • Focus on particulate matter (PM-10)

    • Science-based Action Plan to be developed

      Funding and Facilitative support from USEPA and USAEP/USAID to develop and implement the project in Pune

    New urban air quality management initiative1
    New Urban Air Quality Management Initiative

    • Strong training component – training transfer

      • ambient air monitoring (source apportionment and permanent networks)

      • emission inventories (point, area, mobile – IVEM)

      • dispersion modeling

      • control strategy evaluation and selection

      • health impacts assessment

    • Training and field activity

    Activities completed
    Activities Completed

    International Vehicle Emission Model (IVEM)


    • Assisted by University of California – Riverside team

    • IVEM model was based on vehicle technology distribution, driving pattern, time and number of vehicle engine starts for Highway, arterial and residential areas.

    • IVEM Field Study held in Pune, March 2003

      • UCR provided training and assistance

      • Data gathered by Indian groups (Pune Municipal Corporation, ARAI, Univ. of Pune, SIAM, and others)

      • Final report issued June 2003

        Developed most comprehensive mobile source emissions inventory in India to date

    Activities completed1
    Activities Completed (tonnes/day)

    2 Key Activities – Source Apportionment and

    Ambient Air Monitoring

    • Ambient Monitoring

      • EPA team delivered training, September 2003

      • Strong data analysis emphasis

      • Pune field study, September 2003

    • Source Apportionment

      • Training delivered September 2003

      • Field study scheduled in Feb 2005

    Activities completed2
    Activities Completed (tonnes/day)

    Air Monitoring Training and Field Study


    Quality assurance project plan.

    • Data quality objectives

    • Sampling and analysis plan.

    • Quality control/assurance

    • Data analysis

      Air Pollution Chemistry:

    • Sample Collection

    • Data analysis.

    • Site visit to monitoring stations.

    Evaluation of 5 monitoring stations in pune by epa team
    Evaluation of 5 Monitoring Stations in Pune by EPA team (tonnes/day)

    • Relocate 3 samplers from roads & retain two

    • Add at least 1 co-located meteorological station

    • Put all sites on the regular schedules(1-in-3 days or 1-in-6 days)

    • Implement coordinated QA/QC plan

    • Conduct sampler inter-comparison study

    • Modify laboratory / filter- weighing procedures

    • Implement coordinated data analysis program

    Activities completed3
    Activities Completed (tonnes/day)

    Pune Regional Emission Inventory Study,

    March 16-24 , 2004

    • Diverse team of 40 participants from various governmental and educational institutes participated in the study.

    • This was the first ever attempt to prepare comprehensive emission estimates for Pune region and it is the first of its kind in India.

    • The documentation and results are available on

    Activities planned
    Activities Planned (tonnes/day)

    Proposed Source Apportionment Project


    • Deploy 12-15 portable battery operated mini Vol samplers at key sites for a 3 weeks period

    • Samplers can be calibrated to monitor PM2.5 and PM10

    • Collect PM samples during high pollution season

    • Conduct basic chemical specification analysis

    • Conduct gravimetric mass PM10 and PM2.5 analysis

    • Analysis performed in US and India

    Activities planned1
    Activities Planned (tonnes/day)


    • Training module is being developed

    • Focus on dispersion modeling for PM-10

    • Modeling dependent on development of quality inventories

    • Team being assembled from EPA headquarter and Regional staff to support training and field efforts in Pune

    Activities planned2
    Activities Planned (tonnes/day)

    Control Strategy Development

    • Workshop on control strategy development techniques being developed

      • will discuss how monitoring, emissions inventories, modeling come together

      • will include cost/benefits analysis

      • focus on PM-10 control technologies and evaluation techniques

    • Health Assessment Tools- Jan 2005.

    Other projects of usepa and usaep
    Other Projects of USEPA and USAEP (tonnes/day)

    • Undertaking demo diesel retrofit project for heavy vehicles

    • Demo project for promoting LPG in Pune

    Expected project outcomes
    Expected Project Outcomes (tonnes/day)

    • Development of ability to develop science-based action plans – systemic approach

    • Transfer of training modules to India

    • Development of robust air quality assessment tools

    • Create model Action Plan for Pune as example for other cities in India

    Other initiatives
    Other Initiatives………… (tonnes/day)

    • PMC with facilitation from USAEP made Pune member of CAI-Asia in FY 2003

    • Pune also selected by CAI-Asia to undertake “PSUTA” project

    Other initiatives1
    Other Initiatives………… (tonnes/day)

    Work Undertaken by PMC and RTO

    • Preparation of ‘Comprehensive traffic and transportation plan’.

    • Area Traffic Control System to be implemented with the help of C-DAC & Dept. of Information & Technology.

    • Road development such as concretization of roads etc.

    • Plans to renew the fleet of buses and introduce LPG buses in the PMT fleet and catalytic converter.

    • Restriction on movement of certain kind of vehicles

    Other initiatives2
    Other Initiatives………… (tonnes/day)

    • Ban on plying of heavy vehicles in the central area of the city during daytime.( Ban is effective on 17 selected routes)

    • Construction of various projects of fly-overs, ROBs. (Out of 12 earmarked projects, 1 flyover completed, 2 in progress.)

    • Phasing out old municipal transport buses. ( 200 new buses replaced, hiring of 135 buses in progress)

    • Environmental Education program : Awareness program for school children initiated through NGO’s .

    • IRDP (Integrated Road Development Program) and ambitious program of Rs. 10000 Million to develop international standard roads

    • Free pollution check up camps and exhibitions held regularly.

    Other initiatives3
    Other Initiatives………… (tonnes/day)

    • Study on “Air Quality Monitoring and emission source apportionment studies by IOC and ARAI. Development of emission factors for different transport vehicles.

    • MPCB has undertaken steps for development of action plan as per “Supreme Court” directive for 3 cities in Maharashtra I.e. Mumbai, Pune and Solapur.

    • Awareness campaign by NGO’s.

    • Traffic management measures initiated by Traffic Police Dept.

    This all was not possible without
    This All Was Not Possible Without……… (tonnes/day)

    Effective coordination, support and cooperation of

    local network of stakeholders

    • PMC ( Pune Municipal Corporation)

    • UoP (University of Pune)

    • RTA ( Road Transport Authority)

    • Traffic Police Department.

    • MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board)

    • ARAI ( Automotive Research Association of India)

    • SIAM ( Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers)

    • C-DAC ( Centre for Development in Advanced Computing)

    • MCCIA (Maratha Chambers of Commerce and Industries

    • NGO’s like NIRDHAR

    • IIT, NEERI, Oil Companies

    Local network of stakeholders

    • We have formed local network of stakeholders under the CAI-Asia program with facilitative support from US-AEP/USAID

    • Organized various meetings to prepare the draft “Implementation Plan”.

    • Set up AQM cell in PMC

    Aqm cell and its responsibilities
    AQM Cell and Its responsibilities (tonnes/day)

    • Develop roadmap for implementation of action plan with assigned responsibilities for the stakeholders.

    • Get the same approved by the stakeholders

    • Coordinate, facilitate and implement the action plan

    • Organize monthly review meetings to brief the stakeholders on the work undertaken and take guidance from them

    • Undertake awareness campaigns and technical training programs on air quality management.

    Sustainability of the cell

    • The cell can generate revenues through organizing various technical training programs

    • But the primary objective of the cell is to develop, facilitate and implement the roadmap to achieve better air quality in Pune, hence

      The Pune Municipal Corporation committed to develop a self sustainable AQM cell in next 5 years.

      US-AEP’s funding support for AQM cell for a year

    Thank you

    Thank You (tonnes/day)