CCNA ConfigurationLab Hands on Natthapong WannuratCCNA, CCDA, CSE, SMBAM, SMBSEChannel Account ManagerSouth Region
Defining Components of the Network Home Office Mobile Users Internet Branch Office Main Office
Defining the Components of a Network (cont.) Branch Office Floor 2 Server Farm ISDN Floor 1 Telecommuter Remote Campus
Network Structure Defined by Hierarchy Core Layer Distribution Layer Access Layer
Application Application (Upper) Layers Presentation Session OSI Model Overview Transport Layer Network Layer Data Flow Layers Data Link Physical
Telnet FTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG Operating System/ Application Access Scheduling Role of Application Layers EXAMPLES User Interface Application • How data is presented • Special processing such as encryption Presentation Keeping different applications’ data separate Session Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Physical
Role of Data Flow Layers Application Presentation EXAMPLES Session TCP UDP SPX • Reliable or unreliable delivery • Error correction before retransmit Transport Provide logical addressing which routers use for path determination IP IPX Network • Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames • Access to media using MAC address • Error detection not correction 802.3 / 802.2 HDLC Data Link • Move bits between devices • Specifies voltage, wire speed and pin-out cables EIA/TIA-232V.35 Physical
FCS FCS EncapsulatingData Application (Protocol Data Unit) Presentation PDU Session Upper Layer Data Segment Transport TCP Header Upper Layer Data Network Packet IP Header Data LLC Header Data Data Link Frame MAC Header Data Physical Bits 0101110101001000010
Introduction to TCP/IP TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)is a set of rules (protocol) used along with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Using UDP, programs on networked computers can send short messages sometimes known as datagrams (using Datagram Sockets) to one another. UDP is sometimes called the Universal Datagram Protocol or Unreliable Datagram Protocol.
1.Agenda • Explain basic IP Addressing • Review Subnetting concepts • How to Calculate Subnets, host Addresses and broadcast id's • Explain VLSM concepts and Route Summarization
Why IP Addresses? • Uniquely identifies each device on an IP network so that data can be sent correctly to those locations. • Real life analogies: • Address on a letter • Telephone number • Every host (computer, networking device, peripheral) must have a unique address.
Parts of the IP Address • Each IP address consists of: • Network ID • Identifies the network to which the host belongs • Assigned by registry authority and cannot be changed • Host ID • Identifies the individual host • Assigned by organizations to individual devices
IP Address Format: Dotted Decimal Notation Remember binary-to-decimal and decimal-to-binary conversion.
IP Address Ranges • *127 (011111111) is a Class A address reserved for loopback testing and cannot be assigned to a network.
Example Class B Network Address (Reserved) Total number of host addresses available = 2h – 2 where h is the number of bits in the host field
Example Class B Broadcast Address (Reserved) Total number of host addresses available = 2h – 2 where h is the number of bits in the host field
Subnetworks • Smaller networks are easier to manage. • Overall traffic is reduced. • You can more easily apply network security policies.
Number of Subnets Available • To identify subnets, you will “borrow” bits from the host ID portion of the IP address • Number of subnets available depends on the number of bits borrowed. • One address is still reserved as the network address. • One address is still reserved as broadcast address. • Available number of subnets = 2s where s is the number of bits borrowed.
What a Subnet Mask Does • Tells the router the number of bits to look at when routing • Defines the number of bits that are significant • Used as a measuring tool, not to hide anything
Subnet 172.16.14.0/24 is divided into smaller subnets Subnet with one mask (/27) Then further subnet one of the unused /27 subnets into multiple /30 subnets What Is a Variable-Length Subnet Mask?
What Is Route Summarization? • Routing protocols can summarize addresses of several networks into one address.
Summary • Basic IP Addressing • Subnetting concepts • Calculate Subnets, host Addresses and broadcast id's • VLSM concepts and Route Summarization
Agenda • Overview • Cisco IOS Software Features and Functions • Starting up Cisco Network Routers and Switches • Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface Functions • Entering the EXEC Modes • Entering Configuration Mode • Using the CLI to configure and test Routers and Switches • Summary
Cisco IOS Software CLIA common interface for managing Cisco devices. • Features to carry the chosen network protocols and functions • Connectivity for high-speed traffic between devices • Security to control access and prohibit unauthorized network use • Scalability to add interfaces and capability as needed for network growth • Reliability to ensure dependable access to networked resources
System startup routines initiate device software. Switch: Initial startup uses default configuration parameters. Initial Startup of Routers and Switches
Unconfigured vs. Configured Router Example: Initial Bootup Output from the Router
Configuring Network Devices • Configuration sets up the device with the following: • Network policy of the functions required • Protocol addressing and parameter settings • Options for administration and management • A Catalyst switch memory has initial configuration with default settings. • A Cisco router will prompt for initial configuration if there is no configuration previously saved in memory.
A CLI is used to enter commands. Specific Operations vary on different internetworking devices. Users type or paste entries in the console command modes. Command modes have distinctive prompts. <Enter> key instructs device to parse and execute the command. Two primary EXEC modes are User Mode and Privileged Mode. Cisco IOS User Interface Functions
Cisco IOS Software EXEC Mode (User) • There are two main EXEC modes for entering commands.