vagabonds of the solar system l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Vagabonds of the Solar System PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Vagabonds of the Solar System

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

Vagabonds of the Solar System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 206 Views
  • Uploaded on

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17. Guiding Questions. How and why were the asteroids first discovered? Why didn’t the asteroids coalesce to form a single planet? What do asteroids look like? How might an asteroid have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Vagabonds of the Solar System' - frisco


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
guiding questions
Guiding Questions
  • How and why were the asteroids first discovered?
  • Why didn’t the asteroids coalesce to form a single planet?
  • What do asteroids look like?
  • How might an asteroid have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?
  • What are the differences among meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites?
  • What do meteorites tell us about the way in which the solar system formed?
  • Why do comets have tails?
  • Where do comets come from?
  • What is the connection between comets and meteor showers?
a search for a planet between mars and jupiter led to the discovery of asteroids
A search for a planet between Mars and Jupiter led to the discovery of asteroids
  • Astronomers first discovered the asteroids while searching for a “missing planet”
  • Thousands of asteroids with diameters ranging from a few kilometers up to 1000 kilometers orbit within the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
slide6

The asteroids are the relics of planetesimalsthat failed to accrete into a full-sized planet, thanks to the effects of Jupiter and other Mars-sized objects.

jupiter s gravity helped shape the asteroid belt
Jupiter’s gravity helped shape the asteroid belt
  • Even today, gravitational perturbations by Jupiter deplete certain orbits within the asteroid belt
  • The resulting gaps, called Kirkwood gaps, occur at simple fractions of Jupiter’s orbital period
slide8
Jupiter’s gravity also captures asteroids in two locations, called Lagrangian points, along Jupiter’s orbit
asteroids occasionally collide with one another
Asteroids occasionally collide with one another
  • Asteroids undergo collisions with each other, causing them to break up into smaller fragments
asteroids are found outside the asteroid belt and have struck the earth
Asteroids are found outside the asteroid belt—and have struck the Earth
  • Some asteroids, called near-Earth objects, move in elliptical orbits that cross the orbits of Mars and Earth
  • If such an asteroid strikes the Earth, it forms an impact crater whose diameter depends on both the mass and the speed of the asteroid
slide15
An asteroid may have struck the Earth 65 million years ago, possibly causing the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species
small rocks in space are called meteoroids
Small rocks in space are called meteoroids
  • If a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it produces a fiery trail called a meteor
  • If part of the object survives the fall, the fragment that reaches the Earth’s surface is called a meteorite
slide20

Irons and stony irons are fragments of the core of an asteroid that was large enough and hot enough to have undergone chemical differentiation, just like a terrestrial planet

some meteorites retain traces of the early solar system
Some meteorites retain traces of the early solar system
  • Some stony meteorites come from the crust of such differentiated meteorites, while others are fragments of small asteroids that never underwent differentiation
  • Rare stony meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites may be relatively unmodified material from the solar nebula
  • These meteorites often contain organic material and may have played a role in the origin of life on Earth
  • Analysis of isotopes in certain meteorites suggests that a nearby supernova may have triggered the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago
slide23
A comet is a chunk of ice with imbedded rock fragments that generally moves in a highly elliptical orbit about the Sun
slide24
As a comet approaches the Sun, its icy nucleus develops a luminous coma, surrounded by a vast hydrogen envelope
slide25
An ion tail and a dust tail extend from the comet, pushed away from the Sun by the solar wind and radiation pressure
comets originate either from a belt beyond pluto or from a vast cloud in near interstellar space
Comets originate either from a belt beyond Plutoor from a vast cloud in near interstellar space
  • The Oort cloud contains billions of comet nuclei in a spherical distribution that extends out to 50,000 AU from the Sun
  • Intermediate period and long-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort cloud
  • As yet no objects in the Oort cloud have been detected directly
slide31
The Kuiper belt lies in the plane of the ecliptic at distances between 30 and 500 AU from the Sun
  • It is thought to contain many tens of thousands of comet nuclei
slide32
Many Jupiter-family comets probably come from the Kuiper belt, and hundreds of larger objects have been observed in the Kuiper belt
slide34
Fragments of “burned out” comets produce meteoritic swarms
  • A meteor shower is seen when the Earth passes through a meteoritic swarm
key words
amino acids

asteroid

asteroid belt

carbonaceous chondrite

coma (of a comet)

comet

differentiated asteroid

dust tail

fusion crust

Hirayama family

hydrogen envelope

intermediate-period comet

iron meteorite (iron)

ion tail

Jupiter-family comet

Kirkwood gaps

Kuiper belt

long-period comet

meteor

meteor shower

meteorite

meteoritic swarm

meteoroid

minor planet

near-Earth object (NEO)

nucleus (of a comet)

Oort cloud

radiant (of a meteor shower)

radiation pressure

stable Lagrange points

stony iron meteorite

stony meteorite (stone)

supernova

tail (of a comet)

Trojan asteroid

undifferentiated asteroid

Widmanstätten patterns

Key Words