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War Affected Populations and CDD. Designing demand-driven programs to serve war-affected populations. Objective of Study.

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war affected populations and cdd

War Affected Populations and CDD

Designing demand-driven programs to serve war-affected populations

objective of study
Objective of Study
  • Gain a better understanding of what design features World Bank demand-driven projects have used to best serve war affected populations (returning IDP, refugees, ex-combatants, war widows and orphans and other affected groups).
  • Provide a menu of options to TTLs and other partners interested in designing demand-driven projects that serve war affected populations and communities.
projects serving war affected populations
Projects Serving War-affected Populations
  • The World Bank external database captures 174 projects serving conflict affected areas.
  • Of these 34 have some elements of a demand-driven project.
  • 10 of these projects were analyzed for the purpose of this study.
projects serving war affected populations by sector
Projects Serving War-affected Populations by Sector
  • Sector Breakdown
    • Demobilization and Reintegration – 5%
    • Community Infrastructure Reconstruction – 36%
    • Macroeconomic Stabilization – 17%
    • Employment Creation/PW Reconstruction – 3%
    • HIV/AIDS – 2%
    • Other (Mostly Sector-specific) – 37%
project sample analyzed
Project Sample Analyzed
  • Colombia – Magdalena Medio Regional Development Project
  • Angola – Post Conflict Social Recovery Project
  • Eritrea Emergency Reconstruction Program
  • Rwanda – Community Reintegration and Development Project
  • Sierra Leone – National Social Action Project
  • Kosovo – Community Development Fund
  • Macedonia – Community Development Project
  • Afghanistan – National Community Empowerment Program
  • Sri Lanka – Northeast Irrigated Agriculture Project
  • East Timor – Third Community Empowerment and Local Governance Program
categories of war affected populations
Categories of War-affected Populations
  • Ex-combatants (adults and children; rebels and government)
  • Internally Displaced People (IDPs)
  • Returning Refugees
  • Population that stayed
  • Vulnerable groups – widows, orphans, disabled, elderly, excluded ethnic groups
characteristics of war affected areas populations served
Characteristics of War-affected Areas/Populations Served
  • Destroyed or debilitated social infrastructure (Schools, Health Posts, Roads)
  • Agriculture stalled, due to abandonment, mines, lack of access to inputs or markets; industry
  • High unemployment, due to destruction or abandonment of industry
  • Loss of basic households assets (land, house, cooking utensils, clothes, tools, etc.)
characteristics of war affected areas populations served1
Characteristics of War-affected Areas/Populations Served
  • Psychologically and physically traumatized population
  • Destroyed social fabric – lack of trust and cohesion
  • High levels of poverty and extreme poverty
  • Children and youth who have lost several years of schooling
  • Malnourished and in poor health
types of interventions community level
Types of Interventions – Community Level
  • Organization of democratically-elected and representative community councils
  • Participatory community planning – multi-sectoral plans – block grant approach (Afghanistan, Angola, Rwanda)
  • Socio-economic infrastructure
  • Social services projects targeting vulnerable groups (Kosovo and Macedonia)
types of interventions community level1
Types of Interventions – Community Level
  • Productive activities (agriculture, micro-enterprise, etc.)
  • Capacity-building for community-level associations (needs assessment, project identification, planning, implementation and management.)
  • Promotion of social cohesion – within community and among communities
types of interventions regional and municipal levels
Types of Interventions – Regional and Municipal Levels
  • Capacity building for local government to be more responsive to demand from communities – promotion of decentralized model – often building democratic forms of local government from the bottom up (East Timor, Rwanda, Afghanistan).
  • Projects serving multiple communities and municipalities or districts.
targeting strategies used
Targeting Strategies Used
  • Geographic targetingof most affected regions (Angola, Rwanda)– Selection criteria included:
    • Security and accessibility
    • Presence of local government authority and willingness to participate
    • Extent of war damage to community infrastructure
    • Number of returning ex-combatants, IDPs, and refugees
targeting strategies used1
Targeting Strategies Used
  • Poverty and Conflict Affected (Kosovo and Macedonia) - to ensure equity across regions
    • Allocations made to regions based upon following criteria:
      • Population size
      • Level and intensity of poverty
      • Unemployment rate
      • Number of persons displaced from each region
      • Number of damaged houses
targeting strategies used2
Targeting Strategies Used
  • Allocations within regions based upon following criteria:
    • State of physical and social infrastructure
    • Presence of vulnerable or marginalized groups
    • Presence of ethnically mixed communities
    • Under-funded communities
    • Community capacity to plan
    • Community commitment level
    • Level of interest of municipal government in supporting recurrent costs
targeting within communities to ensure inclusion of more vulnerable
Targeting within Communities to Ensure Inclusion of more Vulnerable
  • Ear-marked set-aside for mixed and minority communities affected by the conflict and vulnerable groups (e.g. widows and disabled) (Kosovo)
  • Community Clusters of 20 families to elect representative to Community Development Council and as framework for community-wide consultations (Afghanistan)
  • Separate forum for women to express priorities (Afghanistan)
targeting within communities to ensure inclusion of more vulnerable1
Targeting within Communities to Ensure Inclusion of more Vulnerable
  • At least half of the project applications must come from women’s groups (East Timor)
  • Targeted social mobilization and communication campaigns to vulnerable groups (Rwanda)
  • Increased block grant to communities that involved IDPs and returning refugees in project planning (Afghanistan)
role of community based organizations cbos
Role of Community-based Organizations (CBOs)
  • Community needs assessment, project identification and prioritization, planning, implementation, and M&O.
  • In-kind and cash contributions.
  • Mechanism for rebuilding social cohesion – getting former enemies to identify and plan a mutually beneficial activity
  • Mechanism for creating demand for better services from local government.
role of local government
Role of Local Government
  • Heavy emphasis on building a democratic, responsive and transparent local government through capacity-building in social mobilization, participatory needs assessment, local planning, budgeting, financial management, procurement, maintenance, etc. (Afghanistan, Rwanda, East Timor, Sierra Leone)
  • Projects used as a vehicle to promote decentralization.
role of central government
Role of Central Government
  • National level Project Management Unit affiliated with a Ministry to coordinate activities nation-wide – in some cases projects are approved at this level (Angola, Rwanda)
  • National Steering Committee – nexus for involvement of other sectors
  • Project often includes sub-offices at a sub-national level
role of ngos
Role of NGOs
  • In most projects, NGOs have only a minor role.
  • In one case, the project management unit is an NGO, created for that purpose (Kosovo).
  • Most common role for NGOs – facilitators or suppliers of training, technical assistance to communities and, in some cases, local government (Afghanistan).
  • NGOs as intermediaries between government and community organizations due to weakness of local government (Angola).
how do these projects empower war affected communities populations
How do these projects Empower War-Affected Communities/Populations?
  • Gives them a voice in the reconstruction of their own community.
  • Gives them access to rehabilitated community assets – schools, health posts, water points – that will improve their future prospects.
  • Revitalizes their income generating assets (e.g. Irrigation systems in NE Sri Lanka).
  • Builds their capacity to negotiate with high levels of government.
  • Stabilizes their lives and allowing for gradual recovery from their past traumas.
  • Target the whole community - all have been affected in one way or another, while earmarking funds for most vulnerable households including orphans, former child soldiers, widows, disabled, etc.
  • Use the block grant approach and finance community plans, not just projects.
  • Pay extra attention to building representative community committees that involve all segments of the population – these are mechanisms for rebuilding social cohesion and preventing future conflict.
  • Use this program to promote decentralization and build a democratic form of local government from the bottom up.
recommendations continued
Recommendations – (…continued)
  • Give bonus points or extra money for projects that target particularly vulnerable members of the community (Afghanistan – higher per capita for communities concerned with vulnerable groups, IDPs, and returning refugees).
  • Invest heavily in capacity-building of communities, local government.
  • Be patient – participatory processes take time, especially when involving war-affected and other vulnerable groups, but the results will be more sustainable.