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Venezuela: Introduction to the Political Environment. Nineteenth Century: Independence & the Federal Wars. Simón Bolívar and South American Independence Venezuela splits from Gran Colombia (1830) Jose Antonio Paez & Conservative Ascendency The Federal Wars 1858-63

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nineteenth century independence the federal wars
Nineteenth Century: Independence & the Federal Wars
  • Simón Bolívar and South American Independence
  • Venezuela splits from Gran Colombia (1830)
  • Jose Antonio Paez & Conservative Ascendency
  • The Federal Wars 1858-63
    • Desire for a more democratic society
    • Anti-clericalism
    • Personalism
    • Caracas vs. Interior
dawn of liberal hegemony
Dawn of Liberal Hegemony?
  • Victorious “Liberals”
    • fail to restore order
    • Instability leads to rule of Guzmán Blanco Blanco
  • Liberal Enlightenment (1870 – 1888)
    • Centralization of power in Caracas
    • Economic development
    • Modernization
  • Antonio Guzmán Blanco
characteristics of the liberal enlightenment 1870 1888
Characteristics of the “Liberal Enlightenment” (1870 – 1888)
  • Guzmán Blanco
    • Handson rule initially
    • Exercisedpowerbehindthescenessubsequently
  • Holiday in Paris (1884-1886Accomplishments
    • Centralization of power in Caracas
    • Economicdevelopment
    • Infrastructureconstruction
    • Modernization of Caracas

Dictatorship “light”

Arch of the Federation

political chaos ends liberal era
Political Chaos Ends Liberal Era
  • 1890 Guzmán Blanco’s heirs divide into factions
  • 1899 – clash among political factions leads to violence
  • Return of revolutionary chaos opens the way for Andean domination.
the andean dictatorships begin
THE ANDEAN DICTATORSHIPS BEGIN
  • Cipriano Castro and the Táchira Revolutionaries
  • October 22, 1899 – Victorious Andeans enter Caracas
  • Castro in power 1899-1908
    • Four years of intermittant fighting
    • Default on foreign debts leads to blockade (1902)
    • U.S.: role as negotiator
  • Castro becomes nationalist hero by resisting demands for debt payment by North Atlantic nations
  • November 1908 – to Europe for an operation
juan vicente g mez 1908 1935
Juan Vicente Gómez (1908-1935
  • Style of governing
    • Political unification
    • Economic transformation
    • Runs Venezuela like his ranch
      • Cattle deals used to build the state
      • Force and economic incentives ensure loyalty of the inner circle
heirs of gomez modernization and oligarchic democracy 1935 1945
Heirs of Gomez: Modernization and Oligarchic Democracy (1935-1945
  • López Contraras
  • Medina Angarita (1940-45)
    • Continuing modernization
    • Nationalism and petroleum
    • Politics of the aborted 1945 presidential election campaign
  • Revolution of October 18, 1945
a decade of revolutionary modernization begins
A DECADE OF REVOLUTIONARY MODERNIZATION BEGINS
  • Trienio (1945-48)
    • Rapid modernization of peasants
    • AD takes control of organized labor
    • Marxist cast of AD governments antagonizes the church
    • Incorporation of provincial middle class
    • Constitution of 1947
      • Universal suffrage
      • Representative democracy
elections of december 1947
Elections of December, 1947
  • AD’s Rómulo Gallegos wins more than 2/3 of vote
  • Opposition parties frustrated
    • COPEI (Christian Democrats)
    • PCV (Communists)
    • URD (Democratic Republican Union)
coup november 28 1948
Coup: November 28, 1948
  • AD divided & paralyzed
  • Opposition believes they have been treated unfairly
  • Church fears Marxist impact on Catholic education
  • Military succumbs to pressure from opponents of the government
  • Provisional President Gen. Carlos Delgado Chalbaud
general p rez jim nez and the new national ideal
General Pérez Jiménez and the New National Ideal
  • Andean militarism with a new twist
  • Populism
    • Physical development
    • Reliance on petroleum income
  • Nationalism
  • Infrastructure development

Loved by the U.S. business community?

decay of the military regime 1956 57
Decay of the military regime (1956-57)
  • Increasing persecution of opponents
  • Fall in oil prices
  • Corruption
  • All work and no play makes Marcos a dull boy
fall of the p rez jim nez dictatorship 1957 58
Fall of the Pérez Jiménez Dictatorship (1957-58)
  • Mid 1957
    • Democratic Forces - meet in New York City to coordinate efforts against the dictatorship
  • November 1957
    • Plebiscite on another term for the dictator
  • January 23 1958 Democratic Revolution
    • Return of exiles
    • Pact of Punto Fijo (shares power)
  • Much of territory remains under-populated
transition to representative democracy
TRANSITION TO REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
  • National Elections: December 1958
  • Results (Presidential)
    • AD: Rómulo Betancourt (49%)
    • URD, PCV: Admiral Wolfgang Larrazabal (35%)
    • COPEI: Rafael Caldera (16%)
  • January 1, 1959
    • PuntoFijo democracy begins