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Style Guidelines for Project Writing. Basic Information for Report. Preliminary drafts should be 1.5 line spaced Spacing in final project should be discussed with supervisor Preliminary drafts should be double-sided Double-siding final projects - discuss with supervisor

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basic information for report
Basic Information for Report
  • Preliminary drafts should be 1.5 line spaced
  • Spacing in final project should be discussed with supervisor
  • Preliminary drafts should be double-sided
  • Double-siding final projects - discuss with supervisor
  • Select one convention of English and be consistent
  • Title Page:
    • Title of project, centred at top of page
    • Your name, centred mid-page
    • Name of Project (Semester, Internship, Thesis), centred near bottom of page

Ex. 8th Semester Project in Development and International Relations

    • Name of University and Date, centred very bottom of page
  • Second Page:
    • Title of project
    • Your signature with name below, centred mid-page
    • Supervisors name
    • Name of Project
    • Name of University and Date
  • Following Pages:
    • Table of Contents
    • Acknowledgements (if you like)
    • Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • List of Figures
    • Introduction..
  • Report must be clearly structured with sections, headings & sub-headings (bold and upper case)
  • Pictures/Diagrams/Tables must have a caption or title with explanation and source at bottom
  • Page numbering is preferably at the bottom, in the centre
basic quotation guidelines
Basic Quotation Guidelines
  • Quotations must reproduce exactly the original authors words, including spelling, capitalization, and punctuation
  • An ellipsis (…) indicates where words are omitted
  • Square brackets ([ ]) are added for reasons of grammar or coherence
basic quotation guidelines6
Basic Quotation Guidelines
  • A sentence before the quote establishes the relevance and context
  • Commentary after the quote provides analysis (the reader should not be left to interpret its meaning)
  • Tags to introduce sources into your work:

Ex. Plaschke argues, describes, explains, claims..

Takeda compares, hypothesizes, concludes..

basic quotation guidelines7
Basic Quotation Guidelines
  • A quote of four lines or less appears in the text, enclosed in quotation marks (” ”)
  • Longer quotes are:
    • separated from the main text,
    • begin on a new line,
    • are indented approx. three centimetres from both margins
    • Font size: 10
example of long quote
Example of long quote..

5.1 Policy Implications of Dependency School

Dependency advocates would like the term development redefined and reformulated. It should describe enriching the living standards of all people of the developing world rather than representing for instance, increased productivity and industrialisation. Alvin So characterizes one of the fundamental implications of Dependency,

Thus [developmental] programs should not cater to elites and urban dwellers, but should attempt to

satisfy the human needs of rural peasants, the unemployed, and the needy. Any developmental

program that benefits only a small sector at the expense of the suffering majority is no good at all.[1]

In addition to So’s proposition that development programs must include each strata of society, the Dependency school discourages further contact with core countries and it can be inferred - foreign-dominated multinational institutions. Rather than relying on foreign aid and investment for development, peripheral countries should rely on their own resources and paths towards development…

styles of citation
Styles of Citation
  • Two main ways to credit other people’s work:
    • Author-Date Style or Harvard Style
      • Parenthetical (at end of sentence)
    • Note-System or Chicago Style
      • Footnotes/Endnotes (anywhere in sentence)
harvard style
Harvard Style
  • Author-Date Style, parenthetical ( )
  • Traditionally used in hard sciences
  • Referring to general work:
    • Requires only name of author and year of publication in parentheses
  • Referring to a specific point:
    • Requires name of author, year and page
  • Citations are placed at end of a sentence

Ex: Because of the underdevelopment of the racial theme, Bright Skin was said to have "failed to feed the growing appetite for antiestablishment tracts while at the same time offering no new insights into the nature of Blue Brook Plantation" (Landes 1976, p.121).

  • Full citation given in bibliography
general examples of harvard style
General Examples of Harvard Style
  • Book - more than one author (general work)
    • Citation in text: (Craton and Saunders 1992)
    • Reference list form: Craton, M. and Saunders G. (1992) Understanding Globalisation. New York: Routledge.
  • Article from Journal (specific point)
    • Citation in text: (Herring 1998, p.211)
    • Reference list form: Herring, G. (1998) “A Food Fight That Affects Us All.” Third World Quarterly vol. 26 (3): 214.
  • Newspaper article - no author
    • Citation in text: (Chicago Tribune 1994:4)
    • Reference list form: “Gun injuries take financial toll on hospitals.” Chicago Tribune (1994) 24 February.
chicago style
Chicago Style
  • Note-System, footnotes/endnotes
  • Used in Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Sources placed at bottom of page or end of document
  • Generally when a writer uses only a few sources it is acceptable to omit bibliography **
  • With Bibliography:
    • Notes within next are in short form (ex. Christiansen 2000, 12)
  • Without Bibliography:
    • First note should include all info necessary to identify and locate source
    • Subsequent references have only author’s last name, comma, shortened title, comma and page number
general examples of chicago style
General Examples of Chicago Style
  • Book - more than one author
    • Footnote form (first footnote) no biblio: Michael Craton and Gail Saunders. Understanding Globalisation. New York: Routledge, 1992, 24.
    • Footnote form, with biblio: Craton and Saunders 1992, 24
    • Bibliographic form: Craton, Michael and Gail Saunders. Understanding Globalisation. New York: Routledge, 1992.
  • Article from journal
    • Footnote form, no biblio: Gina Herring. “A Food Fight That Affects Us All." Third World Quarterly 26, no. 3 (1998): 216.
    • Bibliographic form: Herring, Gina. " A Food Fight That Affects Us All.“ Third World Quarterly 26, no. 3 (1998): 214-219.
  • Newspaper article - no author
    • Footnote form, no biblio: "Gun Injuries Take Financial Toll on Hospitals." Chicago Tribune, 24 February 1994, 6.
    • Bibliographic form: "Gun Injuries Take Financial Toll on Hospitals." Chicago Tribune, 24 February 1994.
tricky examples chicago style
Tricky Examples: Chicago Style
  • Unpublished Interviews
    • Last Name of Interviewee, First Name of Interviewee. Interview by [name of interviewer or reference to author if the author is the interviewer]. Type of Interview [such as "Tape recording"]. Place of Interview, Day/Month/Year of Interview.

Example: McDougall, Corrie Lynn. Interview by author. Tape recording. Winnipeg, MB. 29 September 2004.

  • Unpublished Letters and Personal Communications
    • Entries for unpublished letters or other such irretrievable personal communications should not be included in the bibliography. These types of sources should instead be documented in the notes (see Appendix).
  • Unpublished Thesis
    • Last Name of Author, First Name of Author. "Title of Thesis." Master's thesis, Degree Granting Institution, Date of Submission of Degree.

Example: Hughey, Annie Catherine. "The Treatment of the Negro in South Carolina Fiction." Master's thesis, University of South Carolina, 1933.

  • Chapter in a book with editors
    • Footnote form: Ortiz, S. "The Language We Speak." In Living Languages: Contexts for Reading and Writing, edited by N. Buffington, M. Diogenes, and C. Moneyhun. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997.
electronic sources
Electronic Sources

WWW sites, databases, newsgroups etc:

  • Two Principles:
    • Supply as much info as possible about the source
    • Draw an analogy to a relevant print source
  • Pagination: provide with pdf files, otherwise omit numbers and use paragraph number
examples of electronic style
Examples of Electronic Style
  • Electronic Journal- Chicago

Foster, John B. “Marx’s Ecological Value Analysis” in Monthly Review 52 no.4, (2000), < > (21 October 2001).

  • Electronic Journal – Harvard

Foster,J.B. (2000) “Marx’s Ecological Value Analysis” in Monthly Review [Online database] 52(4), Available from:< > [Accessed 21 October 2001]

In text example: (Foster 2000, paragraph 8)

usage of ibid and op cit
Usage of Ibid. and Op. Cit.
  • Ibid. : Latin term, (ibidem, "the same“, immediately preceding reference)
    • Ex. First footnote: Michael Craton and Gail Saunders. Understanding Globalisation. New York: Routledge (1992) 24.
    • Ibid. OR
    • Ibid., p.28
  • Op. Cit.: Latin term, (opus citatum, “the work cited”, earlier citation)
    • Ex. First footnote: Gina Herring. “A Food Fight That Affects Us All." Third World Quarterly 26, no. 3 (1998): 216.
    • Neil Smith. Following the Path. London: Sage (2000) 340.
    • Herring, op. cit., p.218
bibliography presentation
Bibliography Presentation
  • Format:
    • Begin on new page, following last page
    • Page should be numbered
  • Page Format:
    • Title is centred 3cm from top of page
    • Lengthy bibliographies sometimes have categories according to type or subject of source**
  • Entry Format:
    • Single-spaced
    • First line flush with left margin, second and subsequent lines are indented 3cm from left margin
    • Entries listed in alphabetical order, author’s family name (not numbered)
tricky biblio topics
Tricky Biblio. Topics
  • No Author
    • If the author's name is unavailable, the first word in the entry is the first significant word of the title, and the entry is alphabetized according to this first word.
  • Single Author of Both a One-Author Work and a Multiple Author Work
    • List the one-author entry first.
  • More Than One Author, but Fewer Than Four
    • Use all the authors' names by listing the first name on the book/article according to the last name first rule. All others follow in the normal order of first name, space, last name.
  • When There Are Four and More Authors
    • It is ideal to list all authors in the bibliographic entry, then to refer to it in the notes by using only the first author's name, followed by

"et al."--a Latin term meaning "and others."

defining plagiarism
Defining Plagiarism
  • Consists of persons using words or ideas of another as if they were his or her own
  • No student shall submit work at any time that is not entirely their own except where either:
    • The use of the words or ideas of others is appropriate and duly acknowledged or
    • The examiner has given prior permission for collaborative work to be submitted
  • A very serious offence, penalties range from
    • Rewrite and submit the project (draft submissions)
    • Zero for the whole semester and dismissal from University for minimum of 6 months to a year
    • Expulsion from the program
plagiarism can take several forms
Plagiarism can take several forms:
  • Presenting extracts from books, articles, theses, websites and other published or unpublished works such as working papers, seminar and conference papers, lecture notes or other students works, without clearly indicating their origin with quotation marks and/or references such as footnotes; the same piece of work for assessment in two different projects, except with approval and proper citation
  • Using very close paraphrasing of sentences or whole paragraphs without due acknowledgement in the form of reference to the original work;
  • Quoting directly from a source and failing to insert quotation marks around the quoted passages. It is not adequate merely to acknowledge the source.