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Biochemistry Test Review

Biochemistry Test Review

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Biochemistry Test Review

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  1. Biochemistry Test Review Go over most often missed questions. JOURNAL: What can I do different to improve my test scores? Am I studying? If so, how can I study different in order to benefit my learning?

  2. Getting Started: Tues 9/3 What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell? Give an example of each. List the three parts of the cell theory. Parts of the microscope

  3. PLEASE TURN IN: Cells Alive Internet Lab Little Mito Case Study

  4. Biology 101A Unit 3: Day Three Organelles

  5. Cell surfaces • What is it? • Cell membrane: thin flexible membrane • Cell wall: thin, rigid outer layer • What is the function? • Cell membrane: controls what enters & exits cell • Cell wall: provides structure & support • Who has them? • Cell membrane: both plant and animal cells • Cell wall: plant cells and bacteria

  6. Control Center Nucleus: “brain” of cell; holds all genetic information & code for proteins; found in all eukaryotes Nucleolus: dark region in nucleus; produces ribosomes; all eukaryotes Ribosomes: small round organelles; manufacture proteins; found in all eukaryotes

  7. Cytoplasm Liquid portion of cell Provides some structure & allows for flow of substances around cell All cells

  8. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • What is it? • Folded structure; Usually near nucleus, can be throughout the cell • What does it do? • Makes more membrane molecules • Makes proteins secreted by the cell • Transport system for cell • Who has them? • Both plant and animal cells • What else? • Studded with ribosomes

  9. Smooth ER • What is it: folded membrane Throughout the cell; connected to rough ER • What does it do? • Synthesis of lipids • Contains enzymes that regulate blood sugar • Contains enzymes that detoxify the cell • Stores calcium ions necessary for muscle contraction • Who has them? Both plant and animal cells

  10. Golgi Apparatus • What is it: • Folded sacsThroughout the cell • What do they do? • Collects, modifies, packages & secretes products • Produces vesicles (vacuoles) that move products; some are excreted outside the cell • Who has them? Both plant and animal cells

  11. Vacuoles • Where are they? • Throughout the cell • What do they do? • They are part of the storage system • Ex: central vacuole-only found in plants, contains liquid to support the cell • EX: contractile vacuole-only found in protists and animal cells, regulates water in the cell • EX: food & waste vacuoles-found in both plant and animal, contains food and/or wastes • What do they look like? Circles of varying sizes

  12. Special vacuoles Contractile vacuoles- large vacuole; controls water balance in some protists Central vacuole- large water vacuole; stores water; found in plant cells

  13. Lysosomes • What is it? • Small organelles • What do they do? • Contain hydrolytic enzymes for cellular digestion (fuse with food vacuoles), digest damaged cell organelles • Contained in white blood cells to digest antigens • Destroys the webbing in fingers in human embryos • What do they look like? • Small empty vacuoles (circles) • Who has them? Both plant and animal cells

  14. Mitochondria • Where are they? Throughout the cell • What do they do? • “powerhouse” of the cell; release energy from sugars through cellular respiration • What do they look like? • Kidney-bean shape with 2 membranes; inner has folds called cristae with embedded enzymes; increases surface area • Who has them? Both plant and animal cells

  15. Chloroplasts • Where are they? • Throughout the cell • What do they do? • Allow cell to go through photosynthesis • What do they look like? • Oval in shape; 2 membranes (inner/outer); stroma: liquid filled compartment;granum: flattened sacs that act as solar panels • Who has them? Plant cells only

  16. Cytoskeleton • Where is it? Throughout the cell • What does it do? • Provides support; cell’s internal skeleton • Allows for organelle movement • What does it look like? Rods stretching across the cell • Microfilaments-solid rods of actin protein (shape) • Intermediate filaments-made of fibrous proteins; rope like (holds nucleus in place) • Microtubules: straight hollow tubes of tubulin (make up centrioles) • Who has them? Both plants and animal cells

  17. Cilia & Flagella • Where are they? Outside the cell • What do they do? Provide for movement of entire cell; extensions of cytoskeleton • What do they look like? • Cilia: small hairlike • Flagella: long taillike • Where are they found? Animal cells

  18. Centrioles • Where are they? • Normally very small and around nucleus • When cell is reproducing: they move to poles of cell • What do they do? • Function in reproduction; guide chromosome movement • What do they look like? • Small, starlike structures • Who has them? Both cells

  19. Todays Assignments: Tues 9/3 Complete Cell Structures Lab- Directions to follow Cell WS- complete and ATTACH TO CELL LAB HW: Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells POGIL

  20. JOURNAL: Wed 9/4 What is the function of the following organelles AND where can they be found? (QUIZ ON THURSDAY!!) Mitochondria 6) Golgi Apparatus Chloroplasts 7) Ribosomes Lysosomes 8) Cell Membrane Nucelus 9) Cell Wall Nucleolus 10) Rough ER

  21. Todays Assignments: 9/4 Finish up Cell Structure Lab/ POGIL assignment Plant/Animal Cell Coloring/Labeling (keep for you to study…you WILL see this again!!!) WANT AD: activity directions to follow if time permits