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Advancing the participation of people with disabilities in the labour market: INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES AND LESSONS . Presentation to Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Knowledge Talk 12 January, 2012 Michael J. Prince University of Victoria. O ur focus today.

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Advancing the participation of people with disabilities in the labour market: INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES AND LESSONS

Presentation to Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Knowledge Talk

12 January, 2012

Michael J. Prince

University of Victoria

o ur focus today
Our focus today
  • What policies act as barriers to the labour market participation of people with disabilities?
  • What policies act as facilitators of labour market integration for people with disabilities?
  • What lessons can be drawn from promising employment practices at the international level?
international sample
International sample

Anglo-liberal states

Scandinavian-European states

Denmark

Finland

Netherlands

Norway

Sweden

  • Australia
  • Ireland
  • New Zealand
  • United Kingdom
  • United States of America
sources
Sources
  • Prince (2006) International Best Practices In Service Delivery For People With Disabilities: Lessons from other countries and options for Service Canada
  • Prince (2007) Labour Market Participation of Canadians with Disabilities:Trends, Barriers, Facilitators, Policy Lessons and Options for Positive Outcomes
  • Prince (2010) New Strategic Directions for Active Employment Measures for Persons with Disabilities: A Literature Review and Policy Research Agenda
  • OECD (2010) Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers
  • Prince (2011) Gaining, Maintaining And Returning To Employment:A Synthesis Report On Challenges And Successes Of People With Disabilities In Canada
  • World Health Organization (2011) World Report on Disability
active labour market programs
Active labour market programs

Active labour market programming:

  • public employment services and administration
  • training and special support for apprenticeship
  • job rotation and job sharing measures
  • employment incentives for recruitment and job maintenance
  • supported employment and rehabilitation
  • direct job creation
  • start-incentives for self-employment and micro-finance for businesses

Related measures: laws and regulations, income benefit systems, social marketing campaigns

i nternational trends
International trends
  • The employment rate for disabled persons in most industrial countries falls within a range of between 30% to 50%
  • Employment rates of people with disability from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s declined in eight countries; remained steady in another eight countries; and increased in seven countries
  • Canada realized a moderate increase in the average annual growth on the employment rate of people with a disability as did Finland and the Netherlands, with relatively stronger growth rates in Ireland, Mexico, Spain and the UK
  • People with disabilities are more likely than people without disability to be in short-term and part-time employment, self-employment, and in the “informal economy”
promising practices
Promising practices

Encouraging practices internationally are evident in four policy approaches:

  • Reforming assessment procedures to focus on the capacities of people and their ability to work
  • Changing benefit structures in order to improve work incentives, such as by offering financial incentives to employers and or to the employees with partially-reduced work capacities
  • Expanding rehabilitation and employment services to support job searches
  • Transitioning from sheltered work to supported employment and/or social enterprises
barriers a striking degree of continuity
Barriers: a striking degree of continuity
    • In policy and service delivery systems:
      • the resolve of medical assessment models
      • traditional social service approach by many community supports, e.g., segregated day programming
      • the continuance of sheltered workshops and other separated work settings
  • In employment activation measures:
    • the absence of personal supports to enable access
    • limited supply of services
    • access to employment services may be restricted to certain groups, such as new claimants versus existing clients
facilitators
Facilitators
  • Access to education and training, and funding
  • Informed conceptions about the abilities and productive capacity of people with disability
  • Social networks of friends, confidantes and companions
  • Personalized employment counselling
  • Work-focused interviews
  • Early vocational rehabilitation measures
  • Financial incentives to assist people with disabilities with living expenses associated with their impairments
  • Employers forums on disability, financed and operated by employer groups
f acilitators
Facilitators
  • Employment services and supports:
    • Dedicated and committed staff offering services to clients
    • Tailor-made job search activities and training specifically designed to promote each client’s abilities and strengths
    • Adjusting the pace at which people move towards sustained employment according to their own employability and circumstances
    • Recognizing and responding to the differing needs of people with disabilities
    • Information and advice, including implications for income benefits and services
    • Accompanying clients to job interviews
    • Job matching geared to local labour markets
f acilitators1
Facilitators
  • Employer supports and services
    • Detailed job specifications from employers
    • Advice and information about assistive technologies, specialized training, supported employment, and reasonable accommodation
    • Disability management, sickness absence monitoring and return to work plans
    • Ongoing practical and emotional support for both clients and employers to help with any problems which may arise, such as through peer support and mentoring
    • Active involvement and support from partner agencies
r esponsibilities of employers
Responsibilities of employers
  • Employment protection lawsat times include exemptions for small or medium sized establishments, and exclude nonstandard forms of employment such as casual and temporary or part-time labour, all relatively important segments of work opportunities for people with disabilities
  • Mandatory employment quotas on employers to hire a certain number of people with disabilities are not a widespread policy approach
  • Evidence on employment effects of anti-discrimination legislation on people with disability is inconclusive (OECD 2007: 164)
financial incentives for employers
Financial incentives for employers
  • The most common policy tool across OECD nations
  • Tax reductions of social security premiums (premium discounts), business loans, and direct grants for workplace modifications that enable the hiring and retention of persons with disabilities
  • Wage subsidies may help people with disability to increase their human capital, obtain work experience and skills which can be transferable to non-subsidized jobs
  • The take-up rate for such programs is often low
  • The impact of subsidized employment schemes is “ambiguous” for hiring people with disabilities versus retaining workers
collaborative relationships
Collaborative relationships
  • Employer forums can be effective vehicles, often at regional or sectoral levels, for input by non-governmental actors into active employment measures decision-making:
    • bringing together leading employers and employer groups
    • raising the public profile of the issue of employment of people with disability
    • providing a linkage between employers and government officials
    • linking people with disabilities with employers
    • generating inclusive workplace policies and practices
opportunities for innovation
Opportunities for innovation
  • Working together to shift attitudes about people with disability and work
  • Funding to help start small businesses by people with disabilities and build capacity of social enterprises
  • Strengthening incentives and supports for employers
  • Assisting employment service providers to transition from segregated to open labour market approaches
  • Enhancing supported employment and more inclusive workplaces
thank you
Thank you

Michael J. Prince

Lansdowne Professor of Social Policy

Faculty of Human and Social Development

University of Victoria

[email protected]

Disabling Poverty and Enabling Citizenship CURA

http://www.ccdonline.ca/en/socialpolicy/poverty-citizenship

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