Chapter 9. Development. Rich and Poor. The world is divided between relatively rich and relatively poor countries. Geographers try to understand the reasons for this division and learn what can be done about it. Development. The Key Issues are: Why does development vary among countries?
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Fig. 9-1: Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).
Fig. 9-2: Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developed countries but under $5,000 in most less developed countries.
Fig. 9-3: Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.
Fig. 9-4: Mean telephone lines per 1,000 persons, 2002. MDCs have several dozen phone lines per 1,000 persons, while the poorer developing countries may have less than 10.
Fig. 9-5: Students per teacher, primary school level. Primary school teachers have much larger class sizes in LDCs than in MDCs, partly because of the large numbers of young people in the population (Fig. 2-15).
Fig. 9-6: There is a physician for every 500 or fewer people in most MDCs, while thousands of people share a doctor on average in LDCs.
Fig. 9-7: Daily available calories per capita as percent of requirements. In MDCs, the average person consumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, while in LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less.
Fig. 9-8: The less developed regions include Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.
Fig. 9-1-1: Sulfate emissions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. GIS was used to map previously secret data on air pollution after the fall of the communist regime. Extremely high levels were found in some of the main industrial areas.
Fig. 9-9: Although several African countries have important minerals, the world prices of many of these have lagged the prices of industrial products, services, and energy.
Fig. 9-10: The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree of disparity between males and females.
Fig. 9-11: Women’s income is lower than men’s in all countries, but the gender gap is especially high in parts of the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America.
Fig. 9-12: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
Fig. 9-13b: There is a gap in literacy rates between MDCs and LDCs as well as between men and women in many LDCs.
Fig. 9-13a: Female literacy is lower than male literacy (Fig. 9-13b) in many LDCs, with significant gender gaps in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.
Fig. 9-14: Women’s life expectancy is several years longer than men’s in MDCs, but only slightly longer in many LDCs.
Fig. 9-15: The GEM combines two measures of economic power and two of political power by women. (Little data are available for LDCs.)
Fig 9-16: Half or more of professional and technical workers are women in most MDCs and some LDCs, such as Brazil, but only a small proportion are women in most LDCs.
Fig. 9-17: More than one-third of top administrators are women in North America and some other MDCs and LDCs, but 20% or fewer top administrators are women in many other countries.
Fig 9-18: Over 20% of legislative seats are held by women in China, some European nations, and several LDCs. In many other LDCs, under 10% are held by women.
Fig. 9-19: Per capita GDP has increased more in MDCs than in LDCs during this period, while population growth and infant mortality have declined more rapidly in MDCs than in LDCs.
1. The traditional society.
2. The preconditions for takeoff.
3. The takeoff.
4. The drive to maturity.
5. The age of mass consumption.
Fig. 9-20: Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs. Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.
Fig. 9-21: Three-quarters of foreign investment flows from one MDC to another. Only one-quarter goes from an MDC to an LDC.
Fig. 9-22: This north polar projection of the world shows that most of the MDCs are in a core area north of 30° N latitude. The LDCs are mostly on the periphery of this map.