Neuropsychology In The Era Of RTI. David Breiger, Ph.D. Oregon/Washington Bi-state 2010 fall School Psychologist Conference October 14, 2010. Goals:.
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Neuropsychology has generated measures that have been validated for diagnosing specific ld’s.
Neuropsychological assessments can help identify subtypes of ld’s in reading, arithmetic and writing.
Willis and Dumont, (2006) provide a useful frame from which to understand the relationship between RTI and what they call cognitive assessment and could be more broadly called neuropsychological assessment.
They conclude that the two approaches are complementary and that each is beneficial depending upon the individual child.
RTI approaches will be best when children are beginning to learn a single, well defined curriculum (e.g., single word reading, addition/subtraction) and have not experienced an extended period of failure.
As the task becomes more complicated and multi-faceted, it appears that the RTI approach will be less useful and lead to extended periods of failure if no other evaluation data is collected.
Successful intervention “normalizes” activiation
Evidence from neuroimagining, family genetics and instructional treatment studies have lead to evidence based definitions of ld’s
EF – umbrella term that incorporates a collection of inner-related processes responsible for purposeful, goal directed behavior. These executive processes are essential for the synthesis of external stimuli, formation of goals and strategies, preparation for action and verification that plans and actions have been implemented appropriately.
Five types of situations where routine activation of behavior would not be sufficient for optimal performance – involve EF (Norman and Shallice):
The term executive function describes a set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors. Executive functions are necessary for goal-directed behavior.
Executive functions allow us to anticipate outcomes and adapt to changing situations.
Executive functions are important for successful adaptation and performance in real-life situations. They allow people to initiate and complete tasks and to persevere in the face of challenges.
Because the environment can be unpredictable, executive functions are vital to human ability to recognize the significance of unexpected situations and to make alternative plans quickly when unusual events arise and interfere with normal routines.
In this way, executive function contributes to success in work and school and allows people to manage the stresses of daily life. Executive functions also enable people to inhibit inappropriate behaviors.
EF processes develop throughout childhood and adolescence and play an important role in a child’s cognitive functioning, behavior, emotional control and social interaction