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Digital Media. Lecture 11: Animation Georgia Gwinnett College School of Science and Technology Dr. Jim Rowan. Refer to Supplemental text:. But first… a bit about video capture. Capture images using a camera Edit them in a video editor Quicktime iMovie Windows MovieMaker Final Cut Pro.

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digital media

Digital Media

Lecture 11: Animation

Georgia Gwinnett College

School of Science and Technology

Dr. Jim Rowan

but first a bit about video capture
But first…a bit about video capture
  • Capture images using a camera
  • Edit them in a video editor
    • Quicktime
    • iMovie
    • Windows MovieMaker
    • Final Cut Pro
image capture and imovie
Image Capture and iMovie...

Capture images using miniDV camera

Manipulate using iMovie

physical animation
Physical animation

physical animation1
Physical animation

animated gifs
Animated GIFs

  • “Bring to life” using still images to create frames
  • Many techniques
    • draw each frame individually (FlipBook)
    • cell animation
    • cut-out manipulation
    • clayMation or modeling clay manipulation
    • 3D model animation
cell animation
Cell Animation...

Only have to re-create the parts that change

Use paintings on clear plastic

Can have a background that is larger than the frame and “slides” past

cell animation1
Cell Animation...
  • Disney had an army of excellent painters
  • More skilled painters painted key frames
  • Less skilled filled in between the key frames
    • Known as “tweeners”
  • Shadows had to be individually painted

Disney’s original cells sell for a fortune

  • So... what about “Simpsons?”
  • Cell animation
  • First 14 episodes were
  • hand painted
  • Subsequent episodes
  • used digital-ink-and-paint
  • to mimic hand-painted cells
  • So... what about “South Park?”
monty python before south park
Monty Python before South Park

Pilot was cut-out animation in the style of Terry Gilliam of Monty Python’s Flying Circus fame

south park
South Park
  • After the pilot, episodes used computer animation that mimicked cut-outs
  • So… why cut-outs?
simpsons vs southpark
Simpsons vs Southpark
  • Simpsons takes 6-8 Months per episode
    • produces reasonably high quality animations
  • South Park takes 6 weeks
    • so... if you want to have a plot that is derived from very current events, cut out animation allows you to get it produced before it becomes dated
animation process
Animation Process...

You need to create drawings by some means...

  • 2D model to 2D frame
    • hand drawn
    • cell
    • cutout
  • 3D model to 2D frame
    • physical model manipulation
      • aka stop motion clay-mation
    • 3D computer modeling
animation process examples
Animation Process Examples
  • 2D model producing 2D images?
    • South Park (cutout)
    • Simpsons (cell)
  • 3D model producing 2D images?
    • 3D model manipulation
      • Gumby
      • Wallace and Gromit
    • 3D computer modeling
      • Toy Story
      • Up
3d model producing 2d images
3D model producing 2D images
  • Two approaches

-physical model manipulation

-3D animation models

  • both have these elements
      • produce the model (the hard part)
      • move the model
      • define light source
      • define camera position and angle
      • take a picture
physical model manipulation
Physical model manipulation
  • build the model
  • set the lighting
  • set the camera position and angle
  • make a frame
  • move the model
  • make a frame
  • move the model...
  • Very time-consuming!
  • Wallace and Gromit
        • 30 frames per day, 5 years to produce
vector based 3d model blender
Vector-based 3D model (Blender)
  • build the model (time consuming)
  • define light source(s) (in the computer)
  • define camera position and angle (in the computer)
  • move the model… a bit different for 3D vector-based
      • set start and stop key frames
      • computer generates intervening frames
      • this is called rendering
  • render the frames (computationally expensive)
key frames
Key Frames

key frame interpolation
Key Frame Interpolation
  • This is natural since the model is in the computer as numbers already
  • Forms of interpolation
    • linear... motion follows a straight line
      • velocity is constant
      • moves same distance for each unit of time
      • not natural... instantly starts, instantly stops
    • quadratic... motion follows a curve
      • acceleration (deceleration) is constant
      • “easing in” and “easing out”
motion capture
Motion Capture

Achieving natural human motion

This is REALLY hard to do unless you use motion-capture

motion capture1
Motion Capture

Giant Studios

making of avatar
Making of AVATAR

virtual reality
Virtual Reality
  • Total immersive VR (full 3 dimensions)
    • Stereo head mounted display
    • sensors to detect your position
      • on your head
      • on your hands (or any other part that will be in the scene)
  • Quicktime VR and VRML (3D on 2D screen)
    • not immersive (you aren’t in them directly)
    • not stereo vision
    • viewed on a 2D screen
    • you are given navigation tools



augmented reality2
Augmented Reality

Yoda Hallmark card demo