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The Road to WWII. 1933: London Economic Conference: 66 nations met to figure out how to fight the Depression; FDR did not go because he was concerned about domestic recovery more than international issues. The collapse of international cooperation strengthened the dictators’ position.

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1933: London Economic Conference: 66 nations met to figure out how to fight the Depression; FDR did not go because he was concerned about domestic recovery more than international issues. The collapse of international cooperation strengthened the dictators’ position.

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1933: Hitler became Chancellor

1935: Hitler called for compulsory military service

1936: Germany marched into Rhineland

1937: Japan invaded China

1937: FDR’s Quarantine Speech: “We should quarantine the aggressors by economic policy”

1938: Hitler annexed Austria

1938: Kristallnacht

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1938: Munich Conference: after Hitler took Sudetenland, Chamberlain negotiated “Peace in our time”

1939: USSR/ Germany non-aggression plan

1939: Hitler broke promise and invaded rest of Czechoslovakia

September 1, 1939: Poland invaded

Blitzkrieg!

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US Reaction:

Congress passed Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1937, 1939: US citizens could not travel on ships of “belligerent” nations, no arms sold to “belligerent” nations, and no loans extended; no arms to either side in Spanish Civil War

1939: Neutrality is relaxed through “Cash and Carry” Act: countries could buy US weapons if they paid cash and used their own ships.

1940: Selective Service Act: All American men 21 – 35 had to register for a draft

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Spanish Civil War: 1936-1939: was a preview of WWII

Franco, helped by Hitler, overthrew the Spanish government

US remained neutral, refusing to sell arms to either side, which helped cause the defeat of the Spanish democracy and emboldened the dictators.

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1940: Hitler overran Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and France

US Reaction: Bill #1776: Lend-Lease Act: “Send guns, not sons!” By the end of the war, US had sent over $50 billion in arms and equipment.

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Japanese war effort based on shipment of steel, scrap iron, oil from US, but in 1940, US began embargo.

1941: US/Japan negotiated and US demanded Japan withdraw from China; Japan refused

US had cracked Japanese code, but expected to be attacked at the Philippines