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**3-3**Writing Functions Holt Algebra 1 Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz Holt McDougal Algebra 1**1**2 c + b Warm Up Evaluate each expression for a = 2, b = –3, and c = 8. 1. a + 3c 2.ab – c 3. 26 –14 1 4. 4c – b 35 5. ba + c 17**Objectives**Identify independent and dependent variables. Write an equation in function notation and evaluate a function for given input values.**Vocabulary**independent variable dependent variable function rule function notation**5 – 4 = 1 or**Example 1: Using a Table to Write an Equation Determine a relationship between the x- and y-values. Write an equation. 5 10 15 20 1 3 2 4 Step 1 List possible relationships between the first x or y-values.**10 – 4 2 and**15 – 4 3 and 20 – 4 4 and The value of y is one-fifth, , of x. or Example 1 Continued Step 2 Determine if one relationship works for the remaining values. Step 3 Write an equation. The value of y is one-fifth of x.**Check It Out! Example 1**Determine a relationship between the x- and y-values. Write an equation. {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9), (4, 12)} x 4 1 2 3 y 3 6 9 12 Step 1 List possible relationships between the first x- or y-values. 1 3 = 3 or 1 + 2 = 3**2 • 3= 6**2 + 2 6 3 • 3 = 9 3 + 2 9 4 • 3 = 12 4 + 2 12 Check It Out! Example 1 Continued Step 2 Determine if one relationship works for the remaining values. The value of y is 3 times x. Step 3 Write an equation. y = 3x The value of y is 3 times x.**The equation in Example 1 describes a function because for**each x-value (input), there is only one y-value (output).**The inputof a function is the independent variable. The**output of a function is the dependent variable. The value of the dependent variable depends on, or is a function of, the value of the independent variable.**Example 2A: Identifying Independent and Dependent**Variables Identify the independent and dependent variables in the situation. A painter must measure a room before deciding how much paint to buy. The amount of paintdependson the measurement of a room. Dependent: amount of paint Independent: measurement of the room**Example 2B: Identifying Independent and Dependent**Variables Identify the independent and dependent variables in the situation. The height of a candle decreases d centimeters for every hour it burns. The height of a candledepends on the number of hours it burns. Dependent: height of candle Independent: time**Example 2C: Identifying Independent and Dependent**Variables Identify the independent and dependent variables in the situation. A veterinarian must weigh an animal before determining the amount of medication. The amount of medicationdepends on the weight of an animal. Dependent: amount of medication Independent: weight of animal**Helpful Hint**There are several different ways to describe the variables of a function. Independent Variable Dependent Variable y-values x-values Domain Range Input Output x f(x)**Check It Out! Example 2a**Identify the independent and dependent variable in the situation. A company charges $10 per hour to rent a jackhammer. The cost to rent a jackhammerdependson the length of time it is rented. Dependent variable: cost Independent variable: time**Check It Out! Example 2b**Identify the independent and dependent variable in the situation. Apples cost $0.99 per pound. The cost of applesdepends on the number of pounds bought. Dependent variable: cost Independent variable: pounds**An algebraic expression that defines a function is a**function rule. Suppose Tasha earns $5 for each hour she baby-sits. Then 5 •x is a function rule that models her earnings. If x is the independent variable and y is the dependent variable, then function notation for y is f(x), read “f of x,” where f names the function. When an equation in two variables describes a function, you can use function notation to write it.**The dependent variableisa function ofthe independent**variable. yisa function ofx. y=f(x) y = f(x)**Example 3A: Writing Functions**Identify the independent and dependent variables. Write an equation in function notation for the situation. A math tutor charges $35 per hour. The fee a math tutor charges depends on number of hours. Dependent: fee Independent: hours Let h represent the number of hours of tutoring. The function for the amount a math tutor charges isf(h) = 35h.**Example 3B: Writing Functions**Identify the independent and dependent variables. Write an equation in function notation for the situation. A fitness center charges a $100 initiation fee plus $40 per month. The total cost depends on the number of months, plus $100. Dependent: total cost Independent: number of months Let mrepresent the number of months The function for the amount the fitness center charges is f(m) = 40m + 100.**Check It Out! Example 3a**Identify the independent and dependent variables. Write an equation in function notation for the situation. Steven buys lettuce that costs $1.69/lb. The total cost depends on how many pounds of lettuce Steven buys. Dependent: total cost Independent: pounds Let x represent the number of pounds Steven buys. The function for the total cost of the lettuce is f(x) = 1.69x.**Check It Out! Example 3b**Identify the independent and dependent variables. Write an equation in function notation for the situation. An amusement park charges a $6.00 parking fee plus $29.99 per person. The total cost depends on the number of persons in the car, plus $6. Dependent: total cost Independent: number of persons in the car Let xrepresent the number of persons in the car. The function for the total park cost is f(x) = 29.99x+ 6.**You can think of a function as an input-output machine. For**Tasha’s earnings, f(x) = 5x. If you input a value x, the output is 5x. input x 2 6 function f(x)=5x 5x 10 30 output**Example 4A: Evaluating Functions**Evaluate the function for the given input values. For f(x) = 3x + 2, find f(x) when x = 7 and when x = –4. f(x) = 3(x) + 2 f(x) = 3(x) + 2 Substitute 7 for x. Substitute –4 for x. f(–4) = 3(–4) + 2 f(7) = 3(7) + 2 Simplify. = –12 + 2 = 21 + 2 Simplify. = 23 = –10**Example 4B: Evaluating Functions**Evaluate the function for the given input values. For g(t) = 1.5t – 5, find g(t) when t = 6 and when t = –2. g(t) = 1.5t– 5 g(t) = 1.5t– 5 g(6) = 1.5(6) – 5 g(–2) = 1.5(–2) – 5 = –3– 5 = 9– 5 = 4 = –8**For , find h(r) when r = 600 and**when r = –12. Example 4C: Evaluating Functions Evaluate the function for the given input values. = 202 = –2**Check It Out! Example 4a**Evaluate the function for the given input values. For h(c) = 2c – 1, find h(c) when c = 1 and when c = –3. h(c) = 2c– 1 h(c) = 2c– 1 h(1) = 2(1) – 1 h(–3) = 2(–3) – 1 = 2– 1 = –6– 1 = 1 = –7**Check It Out! Example 4b**Evaluate the function for the given input values. For g(t) = , find g(t) when t = –24 and when t = 400. = –5 = 101**When a function describes a real-world situation, every real**number is not always reasonable for the domain and range. For example, a number representing the length of an object cannot be negative, and only whole numbers can represent a number of people.**Money spent**is$15.00 for each DVD. Example 5: Finding the Reasonable Domain and Range of a Function Joe has enough money to buy 1, 2, or 3 DVDs at $15.00 each, if he buys any at all. Write a function to describe the situation. Find the reasonable domain and range of the function. f(x)=$15.00• x If Joe buys x DVDs, he will spend f(x) = 15x dollars. Joe only has enough money to purchase 1, 2, or 3 DVDs. A reasonable domain is {0, 1, 2, 3}.**x**1 2 3 f(x) 15(1) = 15 15(2) = 30 15(3) = 45 Example 5 Continued Substitute the domain values into the function rule to find the range values. 0 15(0) = 0 A reasonable range for this situation is {$0, $15, $30, $45}.**Number of**watts used is 500timesthe setting #. watts Check It Out! Example 5 The settings on a space heater are the whole numbers from 0 to 3. The total number of watts used for each setting is 500 times the setting number. Write a function to describe the number of watts used for each setting. Find the reasonable domain and range for the function. f(x) = 500 •x For each setting, the number of watts is f(x) = 500x watts.**0**1 3 2 x 500(2) = 1,000 500(0) = 0 500(1) = 500 500(3) = 1,500 f(x) Check It Out! Example 5 There are 4 possible settings 0, 1, 2, and 3, so a reasonable domain would be {0, 1, 2, 3}. Substitute these values into the function rule to find the range values. The reasonable range for this situation is {0, 500, 1,000, 1,500} watts.**Lesson Quiz: Part I**Identify the independent and dependent variables. Write an equation in function notation for each situation. 1. A buffet charges $8.95 per person. independent: number of people dependent: cost f(p) = 8.95p 2. A moving company charges $130 for weekly truck rental plus $1.50 per mile. independent: miles dependent: cost f(m) = 130 + 1.50m**Lesson Quiz: Part II**Evaluate each function for the given input values. 3. For g(t) = , find g(t) when t = 20 and when t = –12. g(20) = 2 g(–12) = –6 4. For f(x) = 6x – 1, find f(x) when x = 3.5 and when x = –5. f(3.5) = 20 f(–5) = –31**Lesson Quiz: Part III**Write a function to describe the situation. Find the reasonable domain and range for the function. 5. A theater can be rented for exactly 2, 3, or 4 hours. The cost is a $100 deposit plus $200 per hour. f(h) = 200h + 100 Domain: {2, 3, 4} Range: {$500, $700, $900}