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THE KINGDOM PROTISTA

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  1. THE KINGDOM PROTISTA

  2. A) SUBKINGDOM PROTOZOA (first animals) - EUKARYOTIC, UNICELLULAR, HETEROTROPHS - PROTOZOA ARE CLASSIFIED BY THEIR METHOD OF MOTILITY

  3. Biology of the Protozoa • The protozoa include about 65,000 species. • Most members are harmless inhabitants of the water and soil. • A few species are parasites responsible for millions of infections in humans per year.

  4. Life Cycles and Reproduction • Trophozoite: • Motile and feeding stage • Requires ample food and moisture to remain active • Cyst: • Dormant, resting stage • Formed when conditions become unfavorable for growth and feeding • Important factor in spread of disease

  5. Pathogenic Protozoa

  6. 1. Phylum Sarcodina - use pseudopods for motility - Naegleriafowleri (PAM)Gains entry through nose/mouth;swiming - Entamoebahistolytica (amoebic dysentery)

  7. Infective Amoebas: Entamoeba • Amoebic dysentery: • Entamoebahistolytica • Fourth most common protozoan infection in the world • Disease is transmitted through ingestion of food or water contaminated with human feces

  8. 2. Phylum Mastigophora - use flagella for motility - Trichomonasvaginalis-vaginal symptomsSource: Humans - Giardia lamblia-intestinal distress Source: Animals, Water, Food

  9. Trichomonasvaginalis

  10. Giardialamblia

  11. 3. Phylum Ciliophora - use cilia for motility - Paramecia - Balantidium coli: intestinal symptoms Source: Cattle, Pigs

  12. Balantidium coli

  13. 4. Phylum Apicomplexa - they have no independent means of motility - the only class in the phylum is the classSporozoa (they are often called sporozoans) - Plasmodium spp.: Malaria - Toxoplasma gondii: Toxoplasmosis - Cryptosporidium parvum: intestinal symptoms

  14. Plasmodium spp.- trophozooites in RBC’s cause malaria

  15. Toxoplasmagondii

  16. Toxoplasmagondii

  17. Cryptosporidiosis – Cryptosporidium parvum

  18. B) SUBKINGDOM ALGAE (first plants) - EUKARYOTIC, UNICELLULAR (OR COLONIAL), AUTOTROPHS - ALGAE ARE CLASSIFIED BY THEIR PIGMENTS

  19. 1. Green algae are theorized to be the ancestors of land plants.2. Red algae are the source of agar.3. Brown algae include kelp and other large ocean “seaweeds.”4. Golden algae include diatoms, which produce massive amounts of O₂ gas5. Fire algae include dinoflagellates responsible for producing “red tides,” they can show bioluminescence6. Euglena can be autotrophs OR heterotrophs

  20. Red algae Agar agar

  21. Nori – sushi wrap (red algae)

  22. Brown algae - kelp

  23. Edible brown algae

  24. Golden algae - diatoms

  25. Fire algae a dinoflagellate bioluminescence

  26. Florida red tide Dead fish due to red tide

  27. Dead sea turtle due to red tide

  28. THE KINGDOM FUNGI

  29. Fungi are: a) important decomposers b) they produce antibiotics c) serve as a source of food mushrooms, truffles, blue cheese, yeast used to make beer, bread and wine

  30. Major Fungal Infections of Humans

  31. Diseases caused by fungi :MYCOSES or MYCOTIC INFECTIONSDermatomycoses are fungal infections of the skin.

  32. Superficial dermatomycoses a) candidiasis: Candida albicans (yeast) - oral (thrush) and vaginal yeast infections

  33. b) Ringworm (tinea) - due to any of the following genera:TrichophytonMicrosporumEpidermophyton- from where do humans get ringworm?

  34. One source of ringworm is from animals.

  35. Tineacapitis – ringworm of the head and scalp

  36. Tineacorporis – ringworm of the body

  37. Tineacruris – ringworm of the groin (jock itch)

  38. Tineapedis – athlete’s foot (ringworm of the foot)

  39. Tineaunguium – ringworm of the nails