Outline/Agenda Elements of the Call for Fire Transmitting the Call for Fire “Calling it in!” Examples Adjustments and Message to Observer OT Factor and Range Spotting Adjusting the Rounds End of Mission (EOM) Summary Questions
Call for Fire Definition A call for fire is a message prepared by an observer. It has all the information needed to deliver indirect fires on the target. Any soldier in the platoon can request indirect fire support by use of the call for fire
Elements of The Call for Fire 1. OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION 2. WARNING ORDER 3. TARGET LOCATION 4. TARGET DESCRIPTION 5. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT 6. METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL
SLIDE 3 The Three Transmissions 1. OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION WARNING ORDER 2. TARGET LOCATION 3. DESCRIPTION OF TARGET, METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT, AND METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL
Adjust Fire Fire for Effect Suppression Immediate Suppression Immediate Smoke Observer ID/Warning Order • FDC (Fire Support) this is C36 (You)
Target Location • Grid • Grid (Ex: EH 910736) • Direction (Ex: 180 deg or 3200 mils) • mils are more accurate than degrees • Use OT factor for adjustments • Polar Plot • Observer’s Location, Direction (OT) and Range, and Up/Down (Elevation) • Shift from a Known Point • Direction, Right/Left, Add/Drop, Up/Down (Elevation)
SLIDE 7 Target Description / Snap 1. What the target is ( troops, equipment, trucks). 2. What the target is doing (digging in). 3. The number of elements in the target (squad, platoon, three trucks). 4. Degree of protection (in open, in foxhole). 5. The target size and shape if significant.
SLIDE 9 Method of Engagement • Type Of Adjustments, Danger Close, Trajectory, Ammo, And Distribution • If The Target Is Within 600 Meters Of Your Location Or The Location Of Friendly Troops, You Will Include Danger Close In Your Call For Fire • Example: • Tank In The Open, Danger Close, Over 600 METERS
Method Of Fire And Control • At My Command • Cannot Observe • Time On Target • Continuous Illumination • Coordinated Illumination
SLIDE 12 Situation 1 You have 2 tanks in the tree line at grid AJ560812 Direction to the tanks is 155 degrees at a distance of 2000 meters. Your call sign is H99 and FDCis B39. Formulate your call for fire. B39 THIS IS H99, ADJUST FIRE, OVER. GRID AJ560812, OVER. DIRECTION 155 DEGREES. 2 TANKS IN TREE LINE,OVER.
SLIDE 13 Situation 2 You have a squad of infantry soldiers moving on your position at grid AK307998. They are Northwest from your OP at about 500 meters. You are N24 and FDC is R81. Formulate your call for fire. R81 This Is N24, Adjust Fire, Over. Grid AK307998, Direction NW, Over. Infantry Squad In The Open, Danger Close, Over.
SLIDE 14 Situation 3 You see a company assembly area in a valley. The distance to the target 3000 meters at a direction of 1730 mils. Your call sign G81 and FDC is P66. Formulate your call for fire. P66 This Is G81, Adjust Fire, Over. Dir 1730, Dis 3000, Over. Company Assembly Area In The Open, Over.
SLIDE 15 Message To Observer After FDC receives the call for fire, it determines how the target will be attacked. The decision is announced to the observer in the form of a message to observer or MTO. The MTO consists of 4 items: 1. Units to fire 2. Changes to the call for fire 3. Number of rounds 4. Target number
Adjusting Phase KEY ELEMENTS 1. The observer-target (OT) Factor 2. Spotting 3. Corrections
OT Factor The OT factor is based on the distance from you to the target and is used to compute the correction that you are going to send to FDC.
Computing the OT Factor Distance to target: 4200 meters Distance expressed to the nearest thousand: 4000 Divide by 1000=OT factor of 4
SLIDE 20 Range Spotting Over Left Right Short OT Line
Deviation Spotting I We can tell if the round is over or short of the target but we must be able to correct left and right to bring the round on the target. This can be done two ways. First by using the Reticle Pattern on the Binos. This example shows that the round has impacted 50 mils to the left of the target Do not send any corrections of 30 meters or less!!!
Deviation Spotting II Second we can use hand Measurements
Adjusting the Round • The distance to the target is 4000 meters. • OT factor is 4 • Round impacted 50 mils left of the target • The correction is right 200 50(mils) x 4(OT)= 200
Range Corrections I 1st Correction add/drop 400 2nd Correction add/drop 200 3rd Correction add/drop 100 4th Correction add/drop 50 Fire For Effect You will most likely want to begin with a 400 meter bracket. This begins a “Successive” bracket technique OT Line First we want to bracket the target by having one round over and one round short. The first round impacted over the target so the correction would be DROP 400.
Range Corrections II OT Line The second round impacted short of the target so the correction would be ADD 200.
Practical Exercise 1 The distance to the target 3400 meters The 1st round impacted 40mils to the right of the Target and long. What is your correction? LEFT 120, DROP 400
Practical Exercise 2 The distance to the target 3400 meters The 2nd round impacted 10mils to the left of the Target and short. What is your correction? RIGHT 30, ADD 200
Practical Exercise 3 The distance to the target 3400 meters The 3rd round impacted on OT line and long target. What is your correction? DROP 100
FFE Phase Your 4th round has impacted and your next correction will be add 50 FFE. You will now get 6 to 8 rounds impacting on the target.
At the completion of the FFE we must determine what effects we had on the target and send an End of Mission (EOM) to the FDC. Tell FDC what happened. Example: Tank burning, end of mission, over.
Summary • We discussed the following: • Elements of the Call for Fire • Transmitting the Call for Fire “Calling it in!” • Examples • Adjustments and Message to Observer • OT Factor and Range Spotting • Adjusting the Rounds • End of Mission (EOM)
Types of Orders • Operations Orders (OPORD) • Garrison OPORD • Tactical OPORD • Warning Order (WARNO) • Fragmentary Order (FRAGO)
Characteristics of Garrison OPORDs • Should be a story from start to finish • Apply TLP • Discuss implied, specified, and essential missions • Detailed timeline • Backwards planning – 1/3 2/3 • Develop good priorities of work • Task subordinates • Supervise • Rehearsals and back briefs • Reconnaissance/unit movement
The Warning Order (WARNO) • Preliminary Notice “Heads up” • Facilitates Time Management • Provides operational details • Outlines key events for mission execution (focus on mission preparation) • Detail dependent on: • The information and time available from the issue of the order to mission execution • The information subordinate commanders need for proper planning and preparation
Warning Order (WARNO) • Time: Provided ASAP after receipt of higher order • Format: • No specific format -- Use the five paragraphs of the operations order as a guide • Use unit SOP/checklists (or develop them) • Necessary information in a WARNO: • The mission or nature of the operation • Who is participating in the mission • Time of the operation • Tasks that unit must accomplish now (equipment, supplies, inspections and rehearsals) to prepare • Time and place that to issue the operations order
WARNO 5 Paragraph Format • Situation--Brief description of the enemy and friendly situation • Mission--Concise statement of the task and purpose • Execution--Brief Statement of the tentative concept of the operation. Time Schedule, earliest time of move, inspection times, time and place of OPORD. Tasks to subordinate key personnel. • Service support • Command And Signal
The Operations Order (OPORD) • Directive issued to subordinate leaders, commanders, • Information to effect execution of an operation • Always specifies execution time and date • Focus is on what to do, not how to do it • Explains why the mission is important
Operations Order- A Basic Outline (1 of 2) • Situation • Enemy Forces • Friendly Forces • Attachments and Detachments • Mission • Execution • Concept of the Operation • Maneuver • Fires • Tasks to Maneuver Units • Tasks to Combat Support Units • Coordinating Instructions
Operations Order- A Basic Outline (2 of 2) • Service Support • General • Material and Services • Personnel • Miscellaneous • Command and Signal • Command • Signal • Supply • Transportation • Services • Maintenance • Medical Evacuations
Situation • Enemy Forces • Not usually used in Garrison OPORD • Terrain, Weather and Light Data • Friendly Forces • Statement of higher unit mission, intent, concept of operation • Mission and action of units two levels up, left/right, front/rear. • Attachments and Detachments • Units or individuals • Effective time period.
Mission • Clear concise statement of the task and purpose • Contains the following information: • Who • What • When • Where • Why
Execution • The “How To” Information needed to accomplish the mission. • Usually in five parts: • Concept of operation • Maneuver • Tasks to Maneuver units • Coordinating instructions • Detailed timeline • Safety
Concept of the Operation • Commander’s intent with desired end state • Covers the entire mission • General overview • Done in phases
Maneuver • Is done in phases • Goes into excruciating detail of each phase • Should be a large portion of the brief Tasks to Maneuver Units • Task all sub-units and attachments • Task subordinates
Coordinating Instructions • Details of coordination between sub units • Synchronization of sub units • Movement instructions • Order of march • Detailed time schedule • Written out & visible • Highlight “hard” times Safety • Safety concerns from A to Z
Service Support • Materials and Services • Supply – all classes • Transportation • Services • Maintenance • MEDEVAC procedures and medical support • Personnel – Sick call procedures
Command and Signal • Location of key leaders • Chain of command • Frequencies • Call signs • Code words
FRAGO • Address only parts of the OPORD that change – must be specific • Uses the same sequence of the OPORD • A brief outline of the changes and instructions
Troop Leading Procedures and OPORDs • Receive the mission • Issue a warning order WARNO • Make a tentative plan • Start necessary movement • Reconnoiter • Complete the plan OPORD • Issue the complete order OPORD Brief • Supervise FRAGO