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Unit K: Challenges to Biomedical Research. Objective BT11.01: Interpret personal beliefs about biomedical research. Interpret personal beliefs about biomedical research. Beliefs about biomedical research What do you believe? Differences between fact and opinion

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unit k challenges to biomedical research

Unit K: Challenges to Biomedical Research

Objective BT11.01: Interpret personal beliefs about biomedical research

interpret personal beliefs about biomedical research
Interpret personal beliefs about biomedical research.
  • Beliefs about biomedical research
    • What do you believe?
  • Differences between fact and opinion
    • Fact: information & ideas that can be supported by data & can be proven
    • Opinion: a belief not based on certainty
  • Fact vs. myth in research
  • Role of animals in society
analyze transgenic animals
Analyze transgenic animals

Early beginnings

  • Biotechnology – collection of scientific techniques that use living cells and molecules to make products and solve problems

1. Transgenic organisms = Organisms that contain another species’ genes within their chromosomes

transgenic animals
transgenic animals
  • 2. Historically – used in selective breeding of livestock, controlled plant pollination, and microorganisms to bake bread, brew beer and make cheese
transgenic animals1
transgenic animals

3. This is accomplished by transferring specific genes from one species to another

4. First transgenic organisms were bacteria

transgenic animals2
transgenic animals
  • 5. Scientists around the world use customized transgenic animals for their own research
  • 6. Species include sheep, goats, cows, chickens, pigs, mice, rabbits, rats, chickens and fish
benefits of transgenic animals
Benefits of transgenic animals
  • Animal models
  • Pharmaceutical production
  • Organ donors
  • Livestock improvement
slide9
Production of transgenic animals
  • The transgene (which contains the DNA the scientist wants to transfer) is introduced into a single-cell embryo
  • The embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother of the same strain
  • Success rate is low (10%-30%) in mice
  • Success rate decreases inmammals
care of transgenic animals
Care of transgenic animals

Most do not require special care

Some develop a susceptibility to disease

slide11
Government’s role in transgenic research
  • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issues patents for transgenic animals
  • Only government policy is the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules
ethical considerations
Ethical considerations

1. People opposed to transgenic animal research believe:

  • Increases animal suffering
  • Animals with altered genetic characteristics could threaten our environment, our health and food supply
  • Scientist are “playing God”
  • Concerned that scientist will use these techniques on humans
slide13
2. Beliefs of people who favor transgenic animal research
    • Transgenic animal models provide a powerful new way to study diseases
    • Vital substances needed by the human body may soon be available at a reasonable cost
    • Sufficient numbers of human organs are not available for transplantation and transgenic animals may provide a new source of organs
    • Transgenic techniques may one day be used to treat human diseases such as sickle cell & cancer
future of transgenic animals
Future of transgenic animals
  • Current research limited to transferring a small amount of genes at a time
  • Much work remains to be done to fine-tune techniques
  • Possible effects of foreign DNA remains a concern
slide15
The use of transgenic models is an established part of biomedical research in numerous fields:
    • Immunology
    • Pharmacology
    • Neurology
    • Cancer research
slide16

“pharming” although still in the research phase, may soon dramatically increase the availability of scare and much-needed human substances, and at a much lower cost

slide17
Biotechnology companies are already producing transgenic pigs whose offspring may alleviate the desperate shortage of organs for human transplantation.
  • Transgenic pigs with human histo-compatibility genes have been bred in the hope that their "humanised" organs will not be rejected by a patient's immune system. Although in its infancy, if successful, this research could transform the lives of the many patients awaiting organ transplants
from sgk
From SGK
  • Gene-based biomedical research offers one of the best hopes yet for curing the major diseases which still afflict mankind. The use of transgenic animals is central to realising that hope and offers the potential for the use of fewer animals in more targeted experiments. We must be clear. There are only two alternatives to using animals. One is to use humans in basic research; the other is to delay or even give up the search for desperately needed new treatments and cures. The appropriate use of transgenic animals is a positive development with potential for significant medical benefits. The challenge is for governments, industry and society to ensure that transgenic research continues to be sensitively carried out for proper medical ends in a suitably balanced regulatory environment.
slide20
History of cloning
    • Dolly the sheep
    • Born: 5 July 1996
    • Birthplace: Edinburgh, Scotland
    • Died: 14 February 2003 (euthanization)
  • Best Known As: The first cloned mammal
  • Dolly was history's first cloned mammal. In February of 1997 it was announced that the biotechnology firm PPL Therapeutics and the Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, Scotland had successfully cloned a sheep, under the direction of Dr. Ian Wilmut. Cells from the udder of a pregnant six year-old sheep were inserted into the uterus of another sheep to develop, and Dolly was born in July of 1996. (Her name was a sly nod to singer Dolly Parton.) Dolly had the DNA of her source, making her the first mammal successfully cloned using adult cells. Dolly was put to sleep in 2003 after doctors detected progressive lung disease, though she had only reached half the life span of a typical sheep.
slide21

Very few scientists believe human cloning (reproductive cloning) should be permitted

  • Many scientists in favor of therapeutic cloning – the procedure used to produce embryonic stem cells that theoretically can be used to treat diseases
slide22
What is a clone?
    • Clone = precise genetic copy
    • Reproductive cloning is really somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
  • In therapeutic cloning, the embryo is not placed in a surrogate, but rather, undergoes cell division in the lab until it reaches blastocyst stage
slide23
Obstacles to reproductive cloning using animals
    • Success rate very low
    • Vast majority of problems occur during fetal development
    • Additional problems show up after birth and years later
    • “Large offspring syndrome” = cloned newborns 20-30% larger than usual, making it hard to deliver unborn babies
embryonic and adult stem cells
Embryonic and adult stem cells
  • Adult stem cells
    • Multipotent stem cells
    • Exist in very small numbers throughout the body
    • Most accessible ones are the blood stem cells that reside in bone marrow
slide25
Embryonic stem cells
    • Called pluripotent stem cells
    • Have the potential to become many types of cells
    • Embryonic stem cells occur at about 4 days of cell division
slide26
cloning, therapeutic cloning, and stem cell research
    • Goal of reproductive cloning is to create a new organism, human or animal
    • Goal of therapeutic cloning is to produce embryonic stem cells
identical twins
Identical Twins
  • Natural cloning
  • Takes place during the first rounds of cell division after conception when each cell had the potential to form a fetus
slide28
Human stem cell research
    • 2001 legislation allowed federal funding of research using 64 existing human embryonic stem cells
    • Same legislation declared no federal funds for additional research.
    • Obama has overturned this in his first year of office allowing funding for new lines of stem cells
slide29
Therapeutic potential of stem cells
    • Researchers must use existing human stem cell lines for research or find private funding sources
    • Creation of embryonic stem cells does not use fertilized egg
    • On the other hand, it does have the potential to become a living thing if transplanted into the uterus
    • Question – is life destroyed if the stem cells are removed from the blastocyst four days later?
slide30
Therapeutic potential of stem cells (con’t)
    • Real advantage of stem cells – permits the production of perfect-match tissue
    • Scientists have found that embryonic stem cells pick up cues from neighboring cells and differentiate into that cell type
    • Scientists hope stem cells will be used to treat heart disease, Parkinson’s disease, other disorders of the nervous system