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Colors. RED GREEN BLUE PURPLE BROWN. Race of Person. Caucasian “White”. African-american “Black”. Jerry Seinfeld. Oprah Winfrey. W. Ink Color. Rosie O’Donnell. Bill Cosby. B. Social Uses of Stroop Karylowski, Motes, Curry, & Van Liempd (2002) .

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Colors l.jpg
Colors

  • RED

  • GREEN

  • BLUE

  • PURPLE

  • BROWN


Social uses of stroop karylowski motes curry van liempd 2002 l.jpg

Race of Person

Caucasian

“White”

African-american

“Black”

Jerry Seinfeld

Oprah Winfrey

W

Ink

Color

Rosie O’Donnell

Bill Cosby

B

Social Uses of StroopKarylowski, Motes, Curry, & Van Liempd (2002)


Results karylowski motes curry van liempd 2002 l.jpg
ResultsKarylowski, Motes, Curry, & Van Liempd (2002)

Result: Faster to read ink color when color and racial category label match than when they mismatch

reaction time (ms)

ink color


Slide7 l.jpg

blue

yellow

green

“Controlled”

“Automatic”

~ Calculus

~ Actions on 1st date

~ What you say when you raise your hand in class

~ Reflexes

~ Stroop Effect

~ Size constancy

What about...

Breathing?

Driving?


Automatic effects on social judgment kelley 1950 l.jpg
Automatic Effects on Social Judgment(Kelley, 1950)

  • Warm/Cold Study

    • TA read description of guest lecturer before 2 different classes

    • 4 characteristics same in both classes

    • 1 class - described as WARM - other class described as COLD

  • Results

    • WARM professor rated more favorably and had more interaction after class


Automatic effects on social judgment srull wyer 1979 l.jpg
Automatic Effects on Social Judgment(Srull & Wyer, 1979)

  • The classic “Donald” study

  • Part 1:

    • Scrambled sentences task; words either related to hostility (e.g., “he kicked her bit”) or not

  • Part 2:

    • Read paragraph about “Donald” and form judgments about him


Slide10 l.jpg

I ran into my old acquaintance Donald the other day, and I decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.


Results srull wyer 1979 l.jpg
Results decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Srull & Wyer, 1979)

  • Donald rated more hostile when scrambled sentences task involved hostile words than when it didn’t

  • Effect seems to happen without awareness, intention, or control


Becoming famous overnight jacoby et al 1989 l.jpg
Becoming Famous Overnight... decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Jacoby et al., 1989)

  • Part 1:

    • Pronounce 40 non-famous names (e.g., Sebastian Weisdorf)

  • Part 2:

    • Test either immediately or 24 hours later

    • Moderately famous names and non-famous names

    • Some old and some new non-famous names

    • “Is this person famous?”


Results jacoby et al 1989 l.jpg
Results decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Jacoby et al., 1989)

  • Immediate test:

    • Mistakes less common for old non-famous names than new ones

  • 24 hours later:

    • Mistakes MORE common for old non-famous names than new ones


Automatic effects on behavior bargh chen burrows 1996 study 2 l.jpg
Automatic Effects on Behavior decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2)

  • Scrambled sentences task including either:

    • Elderly stereotype words (e.g., Florida, wrinkle, old, knits)

    • Neutral words (e.g., thirsty, clean, private)

  • Told that experiment is over

  • Time how long it takes subject to walk to elevator

John Bargh


Results bargh chen burrows 1996 study 2 l.jpg
Results decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2)


Automatic effects on behavior bargh chen burrows 1996 study 3 l.jpg
Automatic Effects on Behavior decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 3)

  • Boring task

  • Priming manipulation:

    • Black or White male faces flashed outside of awareness (~20 ms) before each trial


Automatic effects on behavior bargh chen burrows 1996 study 317 l.jpg

F1 Error: decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.

Failure saving

data

Automatic Effects on Behavior(Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 3)

  • After 300th trial

    • I’m sorry, but it looks like you’ll have to do the experiment over


Results bargh chen burrows 1996 study 3 l.jpg
Results decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 3)


Automatic effects on behavior dijksterhuis van knippenberg 1998 l.jpg
Automatic Effects on Behavior decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998)

  • Stereotypes:

    • Professors (Study 2)

    • Soccer Hooligans (Study 3)

  • Priming procedure:

    • Write about the behavior, lifestyle, appearance, and attributes of the typical X

  • Trivia Quiz: 60 questions

    • e.g., “Who painted La Guernica?” a) Dali, b) Miro, c) Picasso, d) Velasquez


Results dijksterhuis van knippenberg 1998 l.jpg
Results decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998)


Automatic effects on goals bargh et al 2001 l.jpg
Automatic Effects on Goals decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Bargh et al, 2001)

  • Priming manipulation:

    • Word-find task with words related to

      • achievement--e.g., win, achieve, compete, attain

      • neutral--e.g., ranch, shampoo, river, carpet

  • Scrabble task:

    • create as many words as possible out of 8 tiles

  • Measure persistence at task

    • After 2 min. told to stop via intercom


Results bargh et al 2001 l.jpg
Results decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.(Bargh et al, 2001)

  • Proportion who continued to work after the experimenter said, “stop” over the intercom

    • 57% in achievement condition

    • 22% in neutral condition


Observation of the invisible l.jpg
Observation of the Invisible decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.

  • The Implicit Association Test is designed to tap automatic associations between concepts and attributes (e.g., male:science female:liberal arts)


Implicit association test l.jpg
Implicit Association Test decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.


Implicit stereotypes l.jpg
Implicit Stereotypes decided to go over and visit him, since by coincidence we took our vacations at the same time. Soon after I arrived, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. He also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. I couldn’t find what I was looking for, so we left and walked a few blocks to another store.

Mahzarin Banaji

"I was taken aback by my inability to make the intended association, the difficulty in making the counter-stereotypical association between, say, female and career, or male and home."

“If we are aware of our biases, we can correct for them—as when driving a car that drifts to the right, we steer left to go where we intend."

-- Mahzarin Banaji


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