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Hong Kong and selected cities. HDTV and IPTV Development:. John Yip Chief Engineer RTHK 2009.03.12. 1. Introduction (1). HDTV and IPTV are advancing in the Asian Pacific region

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1 introduction 1
1. Introduction (1)
  • HDTV and IPTV are advancing in the Asian Pacific region
  • Viewers embrace the benefits of Digital TV and Triple-play eg improved picture quality and additional TV channels.
  • Hong Kong: enjoying a very healthy growth in both HDTV and IPTV.
  • For digital TV service providers, ROI (Return On Investment) is a primary concern. Growth is crucial: no growth => no ROI.
1 introduction 2
To look at the progress in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Singapore and Sydney.

To analyse the growth and the underlying factors, an Excel calculator is introduced, focussing on the soft factors, based on the RPMO methodology (re ABU digital broadcast symposiums: 2005, 2007, 2008).

RPMO calculator + Benchmarking curves have been developed, to assist service providers in evaluating critical growth factors and the areas where further efforts may be required.

1. Introduction (2)
2 hdtv in hong kong
2. HDTV in Hong Kong


DTT channels (simulcast)

on MFN

MPEG4 (H.264),

MHEG5 (middleware)

Dolby 5.1

HDTV + co-channel SD

on SFN

  • TVB & ATV have been providing the digital TV transmission network services, since Dec. 31, 2007.
  • Population coverage : 75% by early August 2008.
  • DTT/HDTV : 32% of TVH, by end Jan. 2009.
2 hdtv dtt in hk
2. HDTV/ DTT in HK

Basic UHF TV configuration

3 iptv in hong kong
3. IPTV in Hong Kong
  • IPTV provided by PCCW, CTI
  • Household broadband penetration rate

= 78% (end 2008)

  • Technologies : ADSL, ADSL2+, FTTH, with subscriber data-rates of 6 Mbps 100 Mbps.
  • Bundled prices : highly competitive.
  • Penetration (TVH) : 50% (after about 5 years), averaging a healthy 10% pa.
4 analytical model rpmo 1
4. Analytical Model (RPMO) (1)

Driving Force (DF)

= Function (soft and hard factors)

= M (r, p, m, o) * H (G, g)

  • Generic growth equation for digital broadcast technology was introduced (in ABU DTV2007)

Regulatory (r)

Pricing (p)

Marketing (m)

Others (o)

Macroeconomic (G)

Geo-physical (g)

Driving Force

(Technology is reflected in Pricing, Device Attributes and Quality.)

4 analytical model rpmo 2
4. Analytical Model (RPMO) (2)
  • Soft Factors : more controllable.
  • Hard Factors : more critical in the initial start-up.
  • The soft-factor analytical model, RPMO model, covers Regulatory, Pricing, Marketing, Other factors.
  • 4.1 RPMO Calculator (Excel based)
  • 7 data-entry boxes ie for R, P, M, O (4 sub-factors). For each box, user enters the major issues.
  • For each issue, user enters a weight (0/1/2/3) and a mark (5.0 – 0.0). Marks: for Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor, Bad, No-Go.
4 1 rpmo calculator 5
4.1 RPMO Calculator (5)
  • The time-span under consideration is important. Choose either the entire growth history (past years) or just the most recent year.
  • The major issues within one soft-factor are inter-related so an arithmetic mean is used.
  • R, P, M, O : relatively independent, hence a geometric mean is used.
4 2 major issues hdtv 1
4.2 Major Issues, HDTV (1)

Regulatory, R

  • High spectrum availability
  • Liberal spectrum licensing/ allocation
  • Liberal cross-platform content policy
  • Definitive timeframe for analog-off
  • High HD quota required of broadcasters
4 2 major issues hdtv 2
4.2 Major Issues, HDTV (2)

Pricing, P

  • Pricing of HDTV receiver and installation

Marketing, M

  • Strong viewer education
  • Strong promotion by the industry
4 2 major issues hdtv 3
4.2 Major Issues, HDTV (3)

Other, O


  • Large volume of HD programming
  • Compelling HD content eg major events

Consumer Habits:

  • Strong TV viewing habit (based on h/ wk)
  • Identifiable major viewing preferences
4 2 major issues hdtv 4
4.2 Major Issues, HDTV (4)

Device Attributes:

  • High availability of iDTV, STB and LCD/ PDP
  • EPG and subtitling
  • Ease of use of HD receiving equipment
  • Interactivity and recording


  • Comprehensive and strong signal coverage
  • Picture Quality (based on Mbps, MPEG2/ H.264)
4 2 major issues hdtv 5
4.2 Major Issues, HDTV (5)

Example : “Good” conditions for a mark of “4” are :

- Mostly-free cross-platform content-flow (eg between FTA and cable/satellite, no policy favouring the latter).

- Well-defined analog-off timetable.

- HD quota of 21 hours/ week or more.

- Initial HDTV consumer outlay (set + installation + subscription) at <= 2% of GDP/capita.

- Average TV viewing of >= 21 hours/ week.

- Strong signal coverage of 75% or better.

- HD at 15 Mbps or better, preferable on H.264.

4 3 major issues iptv 1
4.3 Major Issues, IPTV (1)

Regulatory, R

  • Liberal IPTV licensing policy.
  • Free-market approach to triple-play.
  • Liberal cross-platform content policy.

Pricing, P

  • Pricing of STB and installation.
  • Pricing of annual subscription.
  • Competitive package-bundling, triple-play.
  • Strong anti-piracy protection.
4 2 major issues iptv 2
4.2 Major Issues, IPTV (2)

Marketing, M

  • Strong advertizing efforts by operators
  • Offering attractive promotional packages
  • Free channels offered to subscribers
  • Strong front-line promoting efforts

Other, O


  • Large number of channels available
  • Wide range of content categories
  • Exclusive, compelling, premiere content
4 2 major issues iptv 3
4.2 Major Issues, IPTV (3)

Consumer Habits:

  • Strong TV viewing habit (based on h/ week)
  • Identifiable major viewing preferences

Device Attributes:

  • Wide range of Set-Top Box features
  • EPG and subtitling; Interactivity and recording
  • Ease of use of STB


  • Reliability of network service, STB, etc.
  • Picture Quality (based on Mbps and on MPEG2 or 4)
  • Broadband speed (Mbps) for triple-play
4 2 major issues iptv 5
4.2 Major Issues, IPTV (5)

Example : “Good” conditions, for a mark of “4” are :

- Mostly-free cross-platform content-flow (eg between IPTV and cable/ FTA and no policy favouring the latter eg exclusivity).

- IPTV pricing pa at less than 1% of GDP/capita.

- >= 100 TV channels available.

- Average TV viewing of >= 21 hours/ week.

- Triple-play broadband speed at >= 10 Mbps.

4 3 externalities 1
4.3 Externalities (1)
  • Influencing factors external to the RPMO model.
  • Hard factors can be externalities.
  • Impact of the Olympics 2008 is included in the analyses as the content has been watched world-wide.

HDTV in Hong Kong

  • Pre-existence of an estimated 0.4 M large LCD/ Plasma TV displays.
  • This externality to be discounted in the RPMO analytical model.
4 3 externalities 2
4.3 Externalities (2)

IPTV in Hong Kong

  • Strong anti-piracy protection is reflected as a low/ zero leakage of revenue.
  • GDP/ sq. km is one of the highest in the world due to high GDP/capita and high population density. The high population density allows a fast rollout of IPTV.
rpmo analyses hk sh sin syd 2
RPMO Analyses: HK, SH, SIN & SYD (2)

Fig. 1: Benchmarking curves for HDTV and IPTV, based on RPMO analyses

rpmo analyses hk sh sin syd 3
RPMO Analyses: HK, SH, SIN & SYD (3)
  • Major improvement areas identified:


  • Affordable HDTV-set prices (prices are falling).
  • Compelling HD content eg major events.
  • Liberal cross-platform content-flow policies.
  • Strong promotion and marketing.


  • Liberal cross-platform content-flow policies.
  • Exclusive, compelling, premiere content.
  • Large number and range of channels.
  • High broadband speeds and reliability.
6 itu abu workshop in laos 1
6. ITU-ABU Workshop in Laos (1)
  • Workshop on digital services implementation, Dec. 2008, Vientiane, Laos.
  • Preliminary results were produced by the participants; RPMO values for Digital Radio, DTT and Digital Cable TV ranged from 3.2 to 3.9.
  • For DTT (ie SD) and Digital Radio, a simplified growth equation is postulated, by factoring GDP/capita into the P (pricing) factor, ie consumer outlay being considered as % of GDP/ capita.
6 itu abu workshop in laos 2
6. ITU-ABU Workshop in Laos (2)

DF = R*P(GDP/capita)*M*O

Driving Force (DTT / Digital Radio) :

  • What the consumer may pay for a DTT or DAB/ DRM receiver may be assessed, by using a benchmark price from an economy well-advanced in the concerned technology eg DAB.
6 itu abu workshop in laos 3
6. ITU-ABU Workshop in Laos (3)

For Economy under


Price A

= Price B *(ratio of GDP/capita)*(ratio of consumption, h/week)



  • where consumption = TV viewing (for DTT), or radio listening (for Digital Radio).
  • Pricing equation is subject to the consumer’s consideration of Opportunity Cost and possibly to the micro-economic Principle of Utility Maximization
6 itu abu workshop in laos 4
6. ITU-ABU Workshop in Laos (4)

Principle of Utility Maximization :

MU1/ P1 = MU2/ P2 = MU3/ P3, etc.

  • where MUi and Pi are the marginal utility and price of good i (eg a DTT STB or DAB receiver) respectively.
7 summary
7. Summary
  • HDTV and IPTV are changing the TV-viewing landscape in the Asian-Pacific region.
  • Broadcasters/ telcos are vitally concerned about Growth following a rollout, as ROI depends firstly on market penetration.
  • The application of the RPMO model is exemplified by analysing HDTV and IPTV in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Singapore and Sydney.
  • The Excel-based RPMO calculator is freely available, to facilitate analyses of digital TV development.
Our Target:GROWTHbut ..







IPTV Development

HDTV Development

Digital TV Development

Mobile TV Development

Searchable on Google, etc.

(Use slide show and  to animate.)