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4.01B Authoring Languages and Web Authoring Software. 4.01 Examine webpage development and design. Authoring Languages. Used to control the appearance and functionality of webpages when displayed in a browser Examples include: HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

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4 01b authoring languages and web authoring software

4.01B Authoring Languages and Web Authoring Software

4.01 Examine webpage development and design.

authoring languages
Authoring Languages
  • Used to control the appearance and functionality of webpages when displayed in a browser
    • Examples include:
      • HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
      • XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
      • XHTML (eXtensible HTML)
      • HTML 5
slide3
HyperText Markup Language

First and still primary language for developing webpages/sites.

Uses codes, or tags, to instruct the browser how to display text and images.

Is platform independent.

Example of HTML code

<html>

<title>Student Website</title>

<b>Welcome to my website!</b>

</html>

HTML
slide4
eXtensible Markup Language

Describes data types to facilitate data processing

Designed to carry data, not to display it

Allows the author to define tags to identify each data entry so that the data can be easily imported into other applications

Metadata—data about data

Example of XML code

<weather>

<city>Atlanta</city>

<state>Georgia</state>

<temp>75</temp>

</weather>

XML
xhtml
XHTML

eXtensible HyperText Markup Language

  • Combination of HTML and XML
    • Allows the designer to mix HTML and XML so that browsers can display and manage data correctly
  • Originally intended to replace HTML as dominant authoring language
  • Places restrictions on HTML tags so that code is cleaner and can display data as the author intended
    • Requires all HTML tag sets be closed
    • Requires lowercase tags
  • Many devices can’t interpret bad HTML code (mobile phones, PDAs)
html 5
HTML 5
  • The latest revision of HTML.
  • It has been adopted by the W3C as the next HTML standard.
  • It merges some of the features of HTML and XHTML.
  • It is still being developed.
website enhancement tools
Website Enhancement Tools
  • Style Sheets
    • Describe how browsers should present or display information on a webpage.
    • Give web developers more control over layout and page formatting.
  • Scripting Languages
    • Lightweight programming languages used to create interactive webpages.
  • Applets
    • Short programs written in Java code that can be embedded into webpages.
slide8
Cascading Style Sheets

Separates content from appearance and gives web authors more control over layout and page format

CSS code instructs the Web browser how to format each item.

<html>

<head>

<style type="text/css">

h1 {color: #00ff00}

h2 {color: #dda0dd}

p {color: rgb(0,0,255)}

</style>

</head>

<body>

<h1>This is header 1</h1>

<h2>This is header 2</h2>

<p>This is a paragraph</p>

</body>

</html>

CSS
pros and cons of css
Advantages

One style sheet can control the formatting for multiple webpages.

An entire website can be reformatted by editing one CSS file.

Styles can also be set internally. The CSS code is keyed in the header section of the html document.

Disadvantages

May alter the ability of some devices to accurately read and display information.

Not all browsers recognize style sheets, especially older versions of browsers.

Many browsers do not recognize all the styles in CSS.

Pros and Cons of CSS
javascript
An object based scripting language that allows creation and execution of procedures within a webpage.

Does not require plug-ins (additional programs for the user to install).

Widely supported by most browsers.

The JavaScript below displays this dialog box in the browser window:

<html>

<head>

<title>JavaScript Example</title>

<script type="text/JavaScript">

var foo="Greetings, visitor!"alert(foo);

</script>

</head>

<body>

</body>

</html>

JavaScript
java applets
Java Applets
  • Short programs written in Java code
  • Added to basic HTML and XHTML
  • Used to add multimedia, animation, gaming, and other interactive elements to webpages to make them more interesting.

http://java.sun.com/applets/

web authoring software
Web Authoring Software
  • There are several web authoring software solutions available for authoring and managing websites.
  • Text Editors – allow developers to write code in plain text.
    • Examples: Notepad and Wordpad
  • Web Editors - provides a graphical user interface with menus containing commands to make webpage creation easier for developers. Examples include:
    • Adobe’s Dreamweaver
    • Microsoft’s Expression Web
    • Kompozer – open source software
    • Seamonkey – open source software
  • Website hosts also provide proprietary web software authoring solutions for managing pages stored on their sites.