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Nutrition Unit. Health 2. Why Nutrition Matters. Nutrition – The process by which your body takes in and uses food The food you eat plays a significant role in your total health

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why nutrition matters
Why Nutrition Matters
  • Nutrition – The process by which your body takes in and uses food
  • The food you eat plays a significant role in your total health
  • Your body relies on food to provide it with nutrients – substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy
what is a calorie
What is a CALORIE???
  • The energy your body receives from food is measured in calories
  • A calorie is a unit of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food
  • The calories in the food you eat provide the energy your body needs for daily/lifelong activities
what influences your food choices
What Influences your food choices?
  • Choosing the right foods in the right amounts will give your body the nutrients it needs for healthy growth and development
  • People eat for 2 reasons: hunger and appetite
  • Hunger – is the natural physical drive to eat prompted by the body’s need for food
      • When you are hungry, you may feel lightheaded or tired
  • Appetite – is the psychological desire for food
      • Example – the smell of cookies baking tempts you to eat them, even if you are full
foods and emotions
Foods and Emotions
  • Sometimes, people eat in response to an emotional need
      • Stressed
      • Frustrated
      • Lonely or sad
        • Can lead to your body not getting all the nutrients it needs because of loss of appetite
  • People may snack out of boredom or use food as a reward
      • Can lead to weight gain since you are eating when your body doesn’t need food
  • Some people “mindless eat” – which is snacking continuously while absorbed in another activity
food and your environment
Food and Your Environment
  • The people and things around you affect what you choose to eat. Environmental influences include :
      • Family and Culture
      • Friends
      • Time and Money
      • Advertising
      • Group Discussion – Why do advertisers want to influence your food choices?
      • Journal Writing – Write a paragraph describing why it’s important for schools to offer students healthful food choices
  • Name 3 health problems that good nutrition can help you avoid?
  • What is the difference between hunger and appetite
  • Identify 2 emotions that influence eating when someone isn’t hungry
giving your body what it needs
Giving Your Body What It Needs
  • Everything you eat contains nutrients.
  • Nutrients provide specific roles in maintaining your body functions
  • Your body uses nutrients in many ways:
      • As an energy source
      • To heal, and build and repair tissue
      • To sustain growth
      • To help transport oxygen to cells
      • To regulate body functions
6 types of nutrients
6 Types of Nutrients
  • 1. Carbohydrates
  • 2. Proteins
  • 3. Fats
    • Above provide energy
  • 4. Vitamins
  • 5. Minerals
  • 6. Water
    • Above perform a variety of other functions

***Each gram of carbohydrate or protein provide 4 calories of energy

***Each gram of fat provides 9 calories

  • Starches and sugars found in foods, which provide your body’s main source of energy
  • Most nutritionists recommend getting 45% to 65% of your daily calories from carbs.
  • 3 types of Carbohydrates:
    • Simple – sugars such as fructose (found in fruits) and lactose (found in milk)
    • Complex – starches, long chains of sugars linked together (grains bread, pasta, beans and potatoes
    • Fiber – a tough complex carb. that the body cannot digest (fruits, veggies, whole grains, and products made from whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes
role of carbohydrates
Role of Carbohydrates
  • The body uses carbs by breaking them down into their simplest forms
  • Most carbs you consume are turned into simple sugar called glucose
  • Glucose can be stored in your body’s tissue and used later during periods of intense activity
benefits of fiber
Benefits of Fiber
  • Although the body cannot digest fiber, it plays an important role by aiding in digestion and reducing the risk of disease
  • Experts recommend eating 26 grams of total fiber daily for teen girls (14-18) and 38 grams for teen boys
  • Are nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues.
  • Made up of chemicals called amino acids
  • The body uses about 20 amino acids that are found in foods
          • You produce all but 9…these are called essential amino acids because your body must get them from food
  • Foods high in protein
      • Meat, eggs, soy, grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and dairy products
the role of proteins
The Role Of Proteins
  • Protein is the basic building material of all your body cells
  • Muscles, bones, skin, and internal organs are all constructed of protein
  • Helps your body grow during childhood and adolescence
  • The protein hemoglobin in your red blood cells carries oxygen to all your body cells
  • Proteins may also function as hormones
  • Most of what you hear about fats is how to avoid them…
  • Does this mean you shouldn’t eat any fat at all?
      • No. Your body needs a certain amount of fat to function properly. You can, however, choose healthier fats
types of fat
Types Of Fat
  • Unsaturated Fats – vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds tend to contain larger amounts of unsaturated fats
  • Saturated Fats – found mostly in animal-based foods (meat and dairy)
  • Trans Fat – These fats are formed by a process called hydrogenation (causes veg. oil to harden)
      • Found in margarine, many snack foods, and packaged baked goods
      • Can raise your total blood cholesterol level, which increases your risk for heart disease
the role of fats
The Role Of Fats
  • Fats provide a concentrated form of energy
  • Very important in brain development, blood clotting, and controlling inflammation
  • Also help maintaining healthy skin and hair
  • Also absorbs and transports fat-soluble vitamins (A,D, E and K) through the bloodstream
roles of fat cont
Roles Of Fat Cont.
  • Calories from fats that your body does not use are stored as body fat
  • Body fat provides insulation for the body
  • Too much body fat can lead to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
  • Consuming saturated fats can increase levels of cholesterol – a waxy, fatlike substance in your blood
      • Excess cholesterol can build up in your arteries and cause heart disease (heart attack, stroke, etc.)
other nutrients
Other Nutrients
  • Vitamins – are compounds found in food that help regulate many body processes
      • Water Soluble Vitamins – dissolve in water and pass easily into bloodstream…unused are removed by kidneys (vitamins C, folic acid, and B vitamins)
      • Fat Soluble Vitamins – Stored in body fat for later use (vitamins A, D, E, and K)
  • Minerals - are elements found in food that are used by the body
      • Body doesn’t produce minerals – you must get them from food
      • Calcium – very important mineral – promotes bone health – can prevent osteoporosis
nutrients cont
Nutrients Cont.
  • Water – is essential for most body functions
      • Moving food through the digestive system
      • Digesting carbs. and protein
      • Transporting nutrients and removing wastes
      • Storing and releasing heat
      • Cooling the body through perspiration
      • Cushioning the eyes, brain, and spinal cord
      • Lubricating the joints
  • Teen girls need about 9 cups of fluids a day
  • Teen boys need about 13 cups of fluids a day
  • Drinking water prevents dehydration. If you feel thirsty – you have waited too long to take in fluids
healthy food guidelines
Healthy Food Guidelines
  • No time for breakfast?
    • Ever since she started high school, Tina never seems to have enough time for breakfast. Homework keeps her up late, so when she wakes up the next morning, she barely has time to get dressed and catch the bus. Most mornings in class, she feels weak and sluggish, and by lunchtime she’s ravenous. Tina wants to find the time to eat breakfast so she has more energy throughout the day
  • Pretend you are Tina. In a paragraph, write out a plan to fit breakfast into your busy schedule
guidelines for eating right and active living
Guidelines for Eating Right and Active Living
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are a set of recommendations about smart eating and physical activity for all Americans
  • Developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services
  • They provide science-based advice for healthful eating and information on the importance of active living
      • Can be summed up in 3 key guidelines
        • Make smart choices from every food group
        • Find your balance between food and activity
        • Get the most nutrition out of your choices
making smart choices
Making Smart Choices
  • Choosing a variety of foods from each food group will provide all the nutrients your body needs.
  • 5 major food groups
      • Grains
      • Vegetables
      • Fruits
      • Milk
      • Meats and Beans
what s on your plate
What’s On Your Plate???
  • Show the size of foods that should take up your plate space…
  • Now lets take a look at what “real” portion sizes look like…
hungry after school
Hungry after school???
  • Try these sensible snacks:
      • Fresh fruit
      • Cut-up veggies, such as carrots and celery
      • String cheese
      • Unsalted nuts
      • Air-popped popcorn
      • Fat-free yogurt
eating out
Eating Out…
  • And eating right –
    • Making healthful food choices is just as important when you eat away from home,
        • Watch portion sizes
        • Pay attention to how foods are prepared
        • Add fresh vegetables and fruits
        • Go easy on toppings
        • Don’t drink your calories
nutrition labels and food safety
Nutrition Labels and Food Safety
  • Whenever you buy a package of food, it has a label that tells you about the nutritional value of what’s inside.
  • Also lists the ingredients that were used to prepare the food
  • Food labels also list
      • The name of the product
      • The amount of food in the package
      • The name and address of the company that makes, packages, and distributes the product
      • The Nutrition Facts panel, which provides information about the nutrients found in the food
ingredient list
Ingredient List
  • Appears on a label in descending order by weights
  • Food additives – substances added to a food to produce a desired effect
        • May be used to keep food fresh for a longer period of time
        • To boost its nutrient content
        • To improve its taste, texture, or appearance

***2 major food additives – aspartame and olestra

labels and nutritional claims
Labels and nutritional claims
  • Free – the food contains none, or an insignificant amount of a given component
  • Low – Low fat foods for example must have 3 grams of fat or less
  • Light – Must contain 1/3 fewer calories, ½ the fat, or ½ the sodium of the original version
  • Reduced – The food contains 25% fewer calories or 25% less of a given nutrient that its original version
  • High – Food provides at least 20% of the daily values for a vitamin, mineral, protein or fiber
  • Good Source Of – Food provides 10-19% of the daily values for a vitamin, mineral, protein or fiber
  • Healthy – must be low in fat and saturated fat and contain limited amounts
organic food labels
Organic Food Labels
  • USDA Organic
  • Foods labeled with organic are produced without the use of certain agricultural chemicals such as, synthetic fertilizers or pesticides
  • Also cannot contain genetically modified ingredients or be subjected to certain types of radiation
food safety
Food Safety
  • Handling food carefully can help you avoid foodbourne illnesses and other hazards
  • Foodbourne illness – AKA food poisoning
      • Food can contain pathogens or disease-causing organisms
      • Most common are Salmonella, E. Coli and a group of viruses known as the Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses
      • Common symptoms include cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fever
keeping food safe to eat
Keeping Food Safe To Eat
  • Pasteurization – is treating a substance with heat to kill or slow the growth of pathogens
  • Cross-contamination – the spreading of pathogens from one food to another
    • Separate foods that carry pathogens (raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs)
    • Cook to a high enough temperature to kill pathogens
    • Chill – refrigeration slows the growth of harmful bacteria
food sensitivities
Food Sensitivities
  • Can make some foods dangerous to eat
  • Food Allergy – is a condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to substances in some foods
      • Milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soybeans, wheat, fish, and shellfish
  • The symptoms of allergies vary from mild to life-threatening
      • Skin irritations (rashes, hives, or itching)
      • Gastrointestinal Symptoms (nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea)
      • Anaphylaxis – most dangerous symptom – throat swells up and the heart has difficulty pumping
food sensitivities cont
Food Sensitivities Cont.
  • Food intolerance – a negative reaction to food that doesn’t involve the immune system (more common than a food allergy)
      • Lactose Intolerance – most common – occurs when a person’s body doesn’t produce enough of the enzyme needed to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk
          • May experience gas, bloating, and abdominal pain
your energy balance
Your Energy Balance
  • Metabolism – the process by which the body breaks down substance and gets from food (converts the food you eat into fuel)
  • It takes about 3,500 calories to equal 1 pound of body fat
      • Thus, if you consume 500 fewer calories than you use every day, you will lose 1 pound per week
body mass index bmi
Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • BMI – a measure of body weight relative to height
      • Overweight – heavier than the standard weight range for your height
      • Obese – having an excess of body fat
      • Underweight – below the standard weight range for your height
healthful way to lost weight
Healthful Way to Lost Weight
  • Choose nutrient-dense foods – fruits, veggies, and whole grains supply nutrients with fewer calories
  • Watch portion sizes – stick to recommended portion sizes for each major food group
  • Eat fewer food that are high in fats and added sugars – these add calories without many nutrients
  • Enjoy your favorite foods in moderation
  • Be active
  • Tone your muscles – muscle tissue takes more calories to maintain than fat
  • Stay hydrated
healthful way to gain weight
Healthful Way to Gain Weight
  • Select foods from the 5 major food groups that are higher in calories
  • Choose higher-calorie, nutrient-rich foods (nuts, dried fruits, cheese, avocados)
  • Eat nutritious snacks – enjoy more often to increase daily calorie intake
  • Get regular physical activity – since you are increasing your calorie intake, exercise will make sure you gain muscle rather than fat