Medical Imaging of the Upper Limb. X rays. How to read X -Ray. X rays. When looking at a radiograph, remember that it is a 2-dimensional representation of a 3-dimensional object. Height and width are maintained, but depth is lost.
a. Exposure b.Rotation
The big two densities are:
(1) WHITE - Bone
(2) BLACK - Air
The others are:
(3) DARK GREY- Fat
(4) GREY- Soft tissue/water
And if anything Man-made is on the film, it is:
(5) BRIGHT WHITE - Man-made
P-A (relation of x-ray beam to patient)
PA view – film is placed anteriorly, X-ray beam passes from posterior aspect to anterior side.
The standard view of the chest is the posteroanterior radiograph, or "PA chest."
This film is taken with the patient upright, in full inspiration (breathed in all the way), and the x-ray beam radiating horizontally 6 feet away from the film.
An AP film, enlarges the shadow of the heart and makes the posterior ribs appear more horizontal.
Usually obtained with a portable x-ray machine from very sick patients, those unable to stand, and infants.
AP radiographs are generally taken at shorter distance from the film compared to PA radiographs.
The farther away the x-ray source is from the film, the sharper and less magnified the image
Since AP radigraphs are taken from shorter distances, they appear more magnified and less sharp compared to standard PA films.
Damage to Axillary nerve and Post. Circumflex humoral Artery
Fracture of Mid Shaft Humerus
Damage to Radial Nerve and Deep artery of ArmHumerus Fractures
Fracture of Supracondylar part:
Damage to median nerve and Brachial artery
This is more common in older person