impressionism and post impressionism in art n.
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Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art

Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art

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Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art

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  1. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Art 1860-1900

  2. Influences/Characteristics • As people grew desensitized to the emotional expression of Romanticism, the need for a new perspective emerged • Impressionism aimed to evoke an image or suggest an emotion-subtly • Avoided art as commentary on morality • Artists experimented with new techniques • Often painted outside and were careful to capture light and atmosphere at specific times of day • Had to devise methods to work quickly to capture the light • Used a few colors and applied them to canvas with bold strokes, leaving the blending of colors to the eyes of the viewer • Subjects often included landscapes, structures, people—anything easily observed • Subjects were painted as though they appeared at the moment of the artistic creation (a snapshot of an image)

  3. EdouardManet • 1832-1883 • French • Known for his attention to the effects of light on objects in space • Painted subjects considered scandalous by the academic establishment and public • Banded together with experimental artists to exhibit rejected works in the Salon des Refuses • Le Dejeuner surl’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) • Scandalous for placing a nude woman among formally dressed gentleman •Édouard_Manet_-_Le_Déjeuner_sur_l'herbe.jpg/1280px-Édouard_Manet_-_Le_Déjeuner_sur_l'herbe.jpg • Olympia • Scandalous for the inclusion of several adornments that identify the subject as a prostitute (orchid in hair, bracelet, pearl earrings, shawl. The name Olympia was associated with prostitutes at the time • Ignores the flowers presented by her servant, thought to be a gift from a client • • Boating • Excellent example of Manet’s attention to light and space • Employs sketch-like brushstrokes typical of Impressionism • • Bar at the FoliesBergere • FoliesBergere was an establishment that presented a variety of entertainment, from ballets to circus acts • Barmaids at the FolisBergere were assumed to also be prostitutes (suggested by the gentleman whose reflection appears in the mirror) • The placement of the barmaid (looking straight ahead) is contradicted by the angle of her reflection •,_A_Bar_at_the_Folies-Bergère.jpg

  4. Claude Monet • 1840-1926 • French • Impression: Sunrise • Gave “Impressionism” its name • • Banks of the Seine, Vetheuil • Studies the effect of light and atmosphere on water, trees, and foliage • Colors applied in bold patches, with no attempt to integrate them on the canvas • Details of trees and foliage are vague and obscure • Horizon placed high in the painting to create a large area of foliage in the foreground • Leaves suggested by individual brushstrokes • • Rouen Cathedral, West Facade • One of thirty canvases he painted of the cathedral, each a study in a different light conditions • This one a study in full sunlight • Lines are imprecise; design is determined by an impression of the acrchitecture • Color in patches of grays and tans that blend a distance away from the canvas •

  5. Pierre-August Renoir • 1841-1919 • French • Maintained more structural form than other Impressionists, but utilized the colors and techniques of Impressionism • By the Seashore • Landscape utilizes brushstrokes typical of Impressionist artists • Figure of the woman maintains attention to structural form • • Le Moulin de la Galette • Intentional blurring of outlines • Effect of light on color a focus of the work • Dappled (spotty) light suggests presence of trees • Variety of color gives the impression of a lively group moving around in the sunlight • Figures become less defined in the background—a few brushstrokes of color •,_Le_Moulin_de_la_Galette.jpg

  6. Edgar Degas • 1834-1917 • French • Known for both painting and sculpture • Ballerinas and horses were favorite subjects • Sought to represent movement in space in both his painting and sculpture • Suffered from severely deteriorating eyesight as a result of an injury during the Franco-Prussian War; as his eyesight worsened he painted less and sculpted more • AraesqueOuverte Sur La JambeDroite • Bronze sculpture • Figures balance, poise, and gesture create a graceful sense of movement • The lines of torso and limbs add to the dynamic effect • • La Petite Danseuse de QuatorzeAns • Wax sculpture of a 14-year-old ballerina, Marie van Goethem • Sculpted in wax, dressed in a real bodice, tutu, and ballet slippers and has a wig of real hair. Everything except the tutu and hair ribbon are covered in wax • 28 reproductions in bronze are found in museums around the world • The original is housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art • • The Rehearsal • Shows a scene out of a dancer’s everyday life • Elevates the mundane, celebrates the modern experience • Attention to the positioning of the body to show movement • Use of open space invites the viewer to be a spectator; one can imagine that the dancers will soon move across the floor •

  7. Post-Impressionism • Bridges Impressionism to 20th-century movements like Expressionism and Cubism • Maintain some of the spirit of Impressionism, while moving in a new direction • New techniques • Cezanne, Gauguin, van Gogh, and Seurat

  8. Paul Cezanne • 1839-1906 • French • Post-Impressionist • Reduced objects in his painting to simple geometric forms • Used cylinders, cubes, cones, and spheres • Distorted nature by bringing out its natural forms (shapes) • Painted landscapes and still-life subjects • The Card Players • Creates an arch with the arrangement of his figures • Creates a triangle with the men’s forearms and table • • Still Life With Apples in Fruit Bowl • • Mont Sainte Victorie •

  9. Paul Gauguin • 1848-1903 • French • Post-Impressionist • After becoming dissatisfied with life in France, he moved to Tahiti • Used bold color in flat, two-dimensional surfaces with strong outlines • His style reflects the 19th-century public’s fascination with the “exotic” • Mahana No Atua (Day of the Gods) • Gives viewers a vicarious experience of a simple lifestyle in a faraway setting • Goddess Hina is in the center • To her right, women dance the upaupa, an ancient Tahitian dance • Trio in the center symbolizes birth, life, and death • • The Siesta • Shows the grace and ease of the Tahitian women • Gauguin worked on this piece for an extended period of time, making numerous changes as he worked •

  10. Vincent van Gogh • 1853-1890 • Dutch • Post-Impressionist • Deeply religious and charitable • Gave away much of his money to the needy • Lived humbly • Said to be tormented by the suffering of others and was convinced that his destiny was to bring humanity together • Had a tumultuous friendship with Gauguin, ending with the infamous cutting of his left ear • Committed suicide • Style • Used heavy oil paint in pure colors, applied in bold strokes and heavy lines • Color, line, and texture are of equal importance • Sought to reveal the movement found in nature • The Starry Night • Expresses van Gogh’s feelings about nature • The twisting cypress tress and swirling sky contrast with the simplicity of the horizon and houses • A visual representation of the motion of the atmosphere • Polychromatic • • La Chambre de Van Gogh a Arles • Van Gogh’s bedroom in Arles • First of three versions of the painting • He wrote of the painting, “This time it simply reproduces my bedroom; but colour must be abundant in this part, its simplification adding a rank of grandee to the style applied to the objects, getting to suggest a certain rest or dream. “ •

  11. Georges Seurat • 1859-1891 • French • Post-Impressionist • Style called pointillism • Placed thousands of small dots of pigment on the canvas that merged into shapes • Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte • Incorporates pointillism • Forms are geometrically stylized and integrate dots of color in varying hues • Spatial recession achieved by the progessively smaller size of background figures • Little sense of movement—figures appear static •